02 - Siemens - Comportement dynamique des convertisseurs.pdf

04/12/2012
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OAI : oai:www.see.asso.fr:3239:3240
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02 - Siemens - Comportement dynamique des convertisseurs.pdf

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© Siemens AG 2012 Energy Sector Liaison HVDC France-Espagne Comportement dynamique des convertisseurs de type VSC-MMC Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 2 Conventional 2-Level Converter 5000 5000 u1 t( ) u1_pulse t( ) 0.020 t 0 + Udc / 2 - Udc / 2 Udc / 2 Udc / 2 Uac High level of harmonic distortion and steep front voltages resulting in HF noise and stress of component insulation Intermediate energy storage in d.c. side capacitors Two voltage sources on the d.c. side are switched to the a.c. side Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 3 Modular Multilevel Converter +Udc/2 -Udc/2 Udc / 2 Udc / 2 Uac Half-Bridge Half-Bridge UM+ UM- UM+ UM- Low level of harmonic distortion and small steep front voltages resulting in low HF noise and low switching losses Intermediate energy storage in converter arm capacitors Six voltage sources in the converter arms create a.c. and d.c. voltage Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 4 Energisation from AC Side (1st Converter) a.c. network 1 2 4 a.c. network 3 2 5 B B close by-pass A close CB A C C actively charge converter D D D DEBLOCK E E adjust tap-change Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 5 Energisation from AC Side (2nd Converter) a.c. network 1 2 4 a.c. network 3 2 5 A close CB A B B close by-pass C C actively charge converter D D DEBLOCK E E adjust tap-change Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 6 Energisation from DC Side (2nd converter) a.c. network 1 2 4 black network 3 2 5 close CB B A DEBLOCK A A B Auxiliary power demand must be supplied by local generators. Converter must de-block from lower capacitor energy level. Transformer must be energized by the converter. Use of tertiary winding for aux. supply requires “stable” network conditions. Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 7 Steady State Operation under Network Unbalances ZN (1) ZN (2) ZN (0) ZT (1) ZT (2) ZT (0) 3ZE ~ Network Transformer E(1) UP (1) UP (2) UP (0) ZC (1) ZC (2) ZC (0) ~ Converter UC (1)UP (1) UP (2) UP (0) ~UC (2)~ E(2) ~ E(0) (PPS) (NPS) (ZPS) P/Q-Mode U/f-Mode P/Q U/f I = 0 (open circuit) U = 0 (short circuit) U50Hz = 0 P/Q – MODE: converter acts as a (PPS) current source U/f – MODE: converter acts as a (PPS) voltage source Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 8 Behaviour on AC Faults (external 3-phase fault, 0%) AC Side Voltage (primary) AC Side Current (primary) Converter Module Energy DC Side Current Voltage collapses to zero in all phases. Reactive (pps) current is fed into the fault. Converter module energies are subject to a large disturbance (unbalance). Active power transfer collapses and must be recovered after fault clearing. Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 9 Behaviour on AC Faults (external 1-phase fault, 0%) AC Side Voltage (primary) AC Side Current (primary) Converter Side Current (secondary) DC Side Current Voltage collapses to zero in one phase. Converter currents (pps) are superimposed by network currents (zps) Positive phase current (pps) is fed by the converter on the secondary side. Active power transfer is only slightly reduced and is recovered after fault clearing. Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 10 Behaviour on DC Faults (internal faults) . . . . . . . . . . . . SM n SM 1 SM n SM 1 SM n SM 1 . . . SM n SM 1 SM n SM 1 SM n SM 1 . . . F1 F2 F3 1-phase ground fault on secondary side 1-phase ground fault on d.c. side 2-phase fault (with or w/o ground) on d.c. side HVDC system is isolated from ground Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 11 Behaviour on DC Faults (1-phase grd. fault, secondary side) Failure F1 0.180 0.200 0.220 0.240 0.260 0.280 0.300 0.320 0.340 ... ... ... -2.50 -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 Linecurrent[kA] IL1 IL2 IL3 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 DCvotlage[kV] UdHP UdHN no fault currents – over-voltage conditions in the d.c. circuit unsymmetrical fault in an isolated system Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 12 Behaviour on DC Faults (1-phase ground fault, d.c. side) no fault currents – over-voltage conditions in the d.c. circuit unsymmetrical fault in an isolated system Failure F3 0.2000 0.2050 0.2100 0.2150 0.2200 ... ... ... -2.50 -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 Linecurrent[kA] IL1 IL2 IL3 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 DCvotlage[kV] UdHP UdHN Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 13 Behaviour on DC Faults (2-phase ground fault, d.c. side) free-wheeling currents after disconnection from a.c. network symmetrical fault with high fault currents Failure F2 -12.5 -10.0 -7.5 -5.0 -2.5 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 Linecurrent[kA] IL1 IL2 IL3 -15.0 -10.0 -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 Transformersec.current[kA] IS1 IS2 IS3 -16.0 -14.0 -12.0 -10.0 -8.0 -6.0 -4.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 Convertermodulecurrent[kA] I1p I2n 0.150 0.200 0.250 0.300 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 ... ... ... -12.5 -10.0 -7.5 -5.0 -2.5 Linecur -15.0 -10.0 -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 Transformersec.current[kA] IS1 IS2 IS3 -16.0 -14.0 -12.0 -10.0 -8.0 -6.0 -4.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 Convertermodulecurrent[kA] I1p I2n Energy Sector / Transmission Solutions © Siemens AG 2012 4. December 2012Page 14 Questions