04-Session3_02-ABB-SEE_Oct_24_Linden_print.pdf

22/10/2012
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OAI : oai:www.see.asso.fr:2991:3001
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04-Session3_02-ABB-SEE_Oct_24_Linden_print.pdf

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© ABB Group Slide 1 PowDoc id © ABB Group Slide 1 PowDoc id Les disjoncteurs à courant continu pour réseaux HVDC DC Breakers for HVDC grids Kerstin Lindén, HVDC R&D Project Manager, SEE, October 24, 2012 © ABB Group Slide 2 PowDoc id Overhead line (OHL) clearance in commissioned VSC-link The Caprivi link, Namibia: First commercial application of VSC with overhead lines:  In case of a DC line earth fault  Opening of AC breakers (x)  Fault arc de-ionization  Closing of AC breaker and sequencial fast re-start  In SVC-mode  500 ms after the fault detection  Back to pre-fault power transmission  additional 1500 – 2000 ms Single pole diagram: Source:SMHI.se Two level converter - Asymmetric monopole (Bipole) - Power diodes OHL – Overhead line = ~ = ~ x x OHL = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ x x OHL © ABB Group Slide 3 PowDoc id Conventional HVDC Breakers - Passive HVDC Breaker  The negative resistance of the arc causes the current oscillations with the capacitor, resulting in current zero crossings. R B L iB iR idid C iCL C I t U t I t U t To create current zero-crossings © ABB Group Slide 4 PowDoc id Example of possible HVDC Grid in Europe Multi-terminal – Symmetrical monopoles Nordic and Baltic countries  South West Link  1’st stage: 2 terminals à 2 x 700 MW  2’nd stage: 3 terminals à 2 x 700 MW  NordBalt  1’st stage: 2 terminals à 700 MW  Possible 2’nd stage: 3 terminals à 700 MW  Possible future HVDC Grid  6 terminals: 700 MW à 300 kV At first, without HVDC Grid Breakers NordBalt South West Link Possible connection © ABB Group Slide 5 PowDoc id HVDC transmission Other faults than DC earth faults  Faults in controls, cooling, filters etc.:  Cause a trip of the converter  The rest of the system continues operation without any interruption.  Does not require DC Grid Breakers.  Apply to A-B link (Point-to- point transmission), regional HVDC grids and interregional HVDC grids. Several protection zones for faults in controls, cooling, filters etc. OHL – Overhead line = ~ = ~ x x Cable or OHL © ABB Group Slide 6 PowDoc id  DC earth faults  The DC breaker limits fault current through converter  AC breakers (X) will not open  VSC can provide reactive power support during disturbances  Fast auto reclosure  For multiterminal schemes and DC Grids:  Line DC breakers or sectionalising DC breakers needed to divide a DC grid into several protection zones for DC earth faults. Cascaded Two-Level Half-bridge (HB) Converter with converter DC breaker The converter station can limit or block the DC fault current HB – Half-bridge Multilevel HB converter Converter DC breaker = ~ x = ~ x Current limitation IDC Fault © ABB Group Slide 7 PowDoc id From Regional HVDC Grid towards Interregional HVDC Grid DC/DC-converter DC Grid Breaker Converter stations with DC fault current blocking function – Converter+Converter DC Breaker Line DC Breakers Sectionalising DC Breakers = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = = x x x x x = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = ~ = = = = x x x x x © ABB Group Slide 8 PowDoc id HVDC Grid Breaker The requirements Proactive Hybrid HVDC Breakers - A key innovation for reliable HVDC grids, presented by ABB at Cigré, Bologna, Sept. 2011  No losses: less than 0.01%.  Fast: High operation speed less than 2 ms  Current limiting function: In-built  High capacity: upto16 kA. © ABB Group Slide 9 PowDoc id  Surges from DC capacitors  Surges from cables and OHL: Udc/Zv, e.g. for cable 320/20 Id AC Breaker F1 HVDC Breaker  Currents from the AC-side + HVDC Grid Breaker requirements The fault current = The HVDC Light converters are designed for these currents © ABB Group Slide 10 PowDoc id HVDC Grid Breaker requirements Speed and capacity – the total current  Introduce a series reactor to reduce the rate of rise of the current. Assuming a reactor of 100 mH, we get the requirement of detection and commutation time versus current to break in a 320 kV grid. F1 R L1 L2 I0 HVDC Breaker Udc Detection and commutation time ms Necessary breaking current kA 1 3.2 2 6.4 5 16 10 32 20 64 R V L V dt di ei R V R V ti dt di LRiV DCDC t t L R DCDC DC I; )()( 0 0 t i © ABB Group Slide 11 PowDoc id Main Breaker Current Limiting Reactor Residual Current Disconnecting Circuit Breaker Load Commutation Switch Hybrid DC breaker Ultra Fast Disconnector Hybrid DC Breaker Basic Functionality  Normal operation: Current flows in low-loss bypass  Proactive control: Load Commutation Switch opens and commutates current into Main Breaker; the Ultra Fast Disconnector opens with very low voltage and current stress  Current limitation: Suitable number of Main Breaker Modules open and commutate fault current into corresponding arrester banks  Fault clearance: Remaining Main Breaker Modules open and commutate fault current into corresponding arrester banks Hybrid DC breaker Fault clearance Breaking current Commutation time Fault © ABB Group Slide 12 PowDoc id Fault clearance  LDC limits rate of rise of the fault current  DC switch commutates fault current into arrester path  Fault current increase stopped  Arrester dissipate fault energy  Fault current broken VSC Cable 12 Cable 13 Cable 14 VDC VBreaker VDC - VBreaker LDC di dt = VMOV > VDC 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time in ms CurrentinkA I(IGBT) I(Arrestor) 0 40 80 120 160 200 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time in ms VoltageinkV V(Vdc) V(Breaker)VDC VBreaker ISwitch IMOV Commutation time Fault clearance by the Main Breaker © ABB Group Slide 13 PowDoc id Summary  HVDC Light with OHL has proven fast auto re-start for power transmission after earth faults. SVC operation within 500 ms.  The advancement in DC Breaker technology has opened up the possibility of low loss and low cost solutions for fast auto-reclosure without reactive power interruption.  With breaking times of 2ms and a current breaking capability of 16kA, the proposed Hybrid IGBT DC Breaker is well suited for DC grids.