Panorama des applications des blockchains à l’énergie

11/10/2018
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Panorama des applications des blockchains à l’énergie

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1 Workshop “Blockchain & Energie” Panorama des applications des blockchains à l’énergie Sara Tucci CEA LIST Gilles Deleuze EDF R&D 2 Blockchain, what is it ? The term blockchain refers to •A data structure : ledger (register) organized as a chain of blocks •The protocol that allows to build the chain (cryptography, consensus rules…) But as well …with the more comprehensive term of Distributed Ledger Technology to 2-layer blockchain Smart contracts Digital assets Token economics Enabling Trust at the Internet Scale 3 Blockchains Cryptocurrency ≠ Blockchain Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, Bitcoin’s blockchain is an implementa9on of the protocol like other cryptocurrencies (Litecoin, Dogecoin, Namecoin, …) Some blockchains are not crypto- currencies: Ethereum, Hyperledger, Tendermint, Oroboros Consensus and Openness Multiple consensus rules: Proof- of-Work, Proof-of-Stake, PBFT (Byzantine Consensus) Different types of control Public, open, authentication not needed Private/consortium with controlled access 4 • A MATURE TECHNOLOGY (IN GENERAL) • A « KILLER APP » • A COMPLETE SOLUTION • A CUSTOMER NEED A BLOCKCHAIN IS NOT… 5 Prolifera*on of ini*a*ves and actors Plateformes Energie, VPP Assurances, Micro Assurances Micro-Grid, P2P Monnaies numériques Virements, transactions bancaires Mobilité Electrique Authortity Leven Usine 4.0 Smart Home Transports Autonomes Unités de compte (PV, Calcul, CO2.) Size diversity, openess, complexity.. Elections, Civic Tech DAO Certificats Environnement, Energie Registres Monnaies et Transactions Microvirements, portes monnaie Trading, Smart Contracts Logistique et services Economie des Machines, DAO, IoT IoT Oracles Carnets de bord, maintenance KSI, ID KYC, concilation de données Cadastres, Carnets de Santé Places de marché Crowdfunding 6 Registry « Notary » Value Transfer « Banker » Contracts « Trader » Machines Economy « Manager » Blockchain Applications - CARTOGRAPHY Factory of the future Smart Home Autonomous Transportation Smart cities Eco-districts Insurance Logistics Maintenance MarketPlaces (GO, REC, Energy, Mobility, Data .. ) Cryptocurrencies ICO Account units Voting Systems Certification Authentification Logbooks Personal data management KYC Blockchain interactions with the environement (Increasing levels of complexity and coordination) Blockchain roles and levels of innovation Smart Contracts, Oracles, Sidechains BC + AI Public BC, Intensive mining, Tokens Cryptographic Ledgers, Panorama of Applications 7 Registry « Notary » Value Transfer « Banker » Contracts « Trader » Machines Economy « Manager » Factory of the future Smart Home Autonomous Transportation Smart ci=es Eco-districts Insurance Logistics Maintenance MarketPlaces (GO, REC, Energy, Mobility, Data .. ) Cryptocurrencies ICO Account units Voting Systems Certification Authentification Logbooks Personal data management KYC Blockchain interactions with the environement (Increasing levels of complexity and coordination) Blockchain roles and levels of innovation Smart Contracts, Oracles, Sidechains BC + AI Public BC, Intensive mining, Tokens Cryptographic Ledgers Panorama of Applica/ons Technology to invent Applications to invent Application to invent Maturing technology Applications already exist Maturing technology Applications already exists Mature technology Asymmetric encryption Replication Work Rewarding Fairness Link physical/virtual Contractual relationships Responsibility Autonomous contracting | 8 Simulation and Blockchain deployment platform for Energy MarketPlaces Blockchain as a Service Peer-to-peer architecture, Traceability, Security, Financial regularisations Smart Contracts Alloca;on algorithms, Automa;sa;on of execu;on Multi-agent platform Localities configurations, Scalability EDF Data Energy productions and consumptions (ex. Smach) Energy MarketPlace Blockchain Network Locality Electrical Network | 9 § Fire is the biggest risk in a power plant § The Milonga facility is designed to manage this risk § Three main test beds Collective self-consumption management using PV In support of the SED Innov program of the EDF Business Unit, the experiment was conducted in conditions close to reality at the ConceptGrid laboratory. The project comprises both innovations in terms of communication architecture and load management. § Optimization of customers self-consumption and the electrical system by piloting hot water balloons (89%-95% of local consumption ) § Blockchain architecture for production and consumption data traceability, customers management and financial regularisations. Collective Self-consumption ConceptGrid | 10 The Oslo2Roma experiment Electrical Mobility § Simplification of user experience § Support the payment of refills § Integration and interoperability of low cost operators § Development of an ecosystem of services around electric mobility The Oslo2Rome experiment has been led by a German start-up MoFonWerk, aimed to show that a an European Blockchain-based network is feasible in the near future. On the 29th and 30th of November 2017, EDF Group took part in the demonstraFng that long- distance and cross-border electric vehicle travel has become simple. The Oslo2Rome experience involved seven major partners, including Sodetrel, the mobility subsidiary of the EDF Group. | 11 EPC monitoring and facturation service Energy Performance Contracts Motivation: can we trust an Energy Performance Contract? Calculating the energy bill requires An increasingly complex predictive model Monitoring data Conditions of use Idea: blockchain as trusted third party Secured billing and auditable by the client Increased trust Adoption 12 Identified Technical Challenges … Challenge #1 data • False/no informa9on • Data protec9on Challenge #2 contracts • Complex businesses and trades • Computer programs not at the same level of abstraction Challenge #3 litigation • Who is the responsible? • Who audits the blockchain? Challenge #4 Scalability & Consensus • Scalability/Security/Dece ntralisation trade-offs to find 13 Emerging solutions Challenge #1 data • Data qualification via Smart Contracts • Anonymization Challenge #2 contracts • Smart contract languages (workflow oriented) • Verification and Formal Methods Challenge #3 li4ga4on New validaEon mechanisms among peers Challenge #4 Scalability & Consensus • Federated blockchains • 2 layer protocols • Characterization of consensus protocols and trade-offs But the key is how to put all these things together … 14 Multilevel Design Model Societal system Socio technical system Product service system Product technology system IoT BlockChain the mutual relationship between product-service system development and societal change processes 15 Takeaways • Blockchain must be seen as a component of a “system problem” • Single technologies do not provide a universal solution • System thinking is necessary • Privacy and General Data Protection Regulation have to be ruled • R&D is needed and the following axes are now well-understood • Federation of heterogenous blockchains • Off-chain transactions • Interoperability • Smart contracts and formal languages • Interdisciplinarity: economical design of distributed protocols • Multi-level Design • Clever engineering and risk assessment is still needed to identify trade-off to build “good enough” systems 16 Thank you ! • [1] Pierre-Yves Piriou, Jean-Francois Dumas, Simula?on of stochas?c blockchain model. WBD 2018.Workshop on Blockchain Dependability. 14th European Dependable Compu?ng Conference, sept 2018. • [2] Tesnim Abdella?f, Kei-Leo Brousmiche. Formal verifica?on of smart contracts based on users and blockchain behaviors models. IFIP NTMS Interna?onal Workshop on Blockchains and Smart Contracts (BSC), Paris, France, February 2018. • [3] Kei-Leo Brousmiche, Andra Anoaica, Omar Dib, Tesnim Abdella?f, Gilles Deleuze. Blockchain Energy Market Place Evalua?on: an Agent- Based Approach. IEEE IEMCON 2018. IEEE 9th Annual Informa?on Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communica?on Conference. Vancouver, November 2018. • [4] E. Anceaume, A. D. Pozzo, R. Ludinard, M. Potop-Butucaru, and S. Tucci Piergiovanni. Blockchain abstract data type. CoRR, abs/1802.09877, 2018. • [5] Z. Dargaye, O. Gu ̈rcan, F. Kirchner, and S. Tucci-Piergiovanni. Towards secure and trusted-by-design smart contracts. In ourn ́ees Francophones des Langages Applica6fs (JFLA’18), 2018. ` • [6] O ̈. Gurcan, A. D. Pozzo, and S. Tucci Piergiovanni. On the bitcoin limita?ons to deliver fairness to users. In CoopIS, 2017, Rhodes, Greece, October 23-27, 2017, Proceedings, Part I, volume 10573 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 589–606. Springer, 2017. • [7] O ̈. Gurcan, A. Ranchal Pedrosa, and S. Tucci Piergiovanni. On the cancella?on of transac?ons in Bitcoin-like blockains. In CoopIS, 2018, • Other technical reports Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou, Antonella Del Pozzo, Maria, Potop-Butucaru Sara Tucci Piergiovanni: Dissec?ng Tendermint. CoRR abs/1809.09858 (2018) (submihed) Alejandro Ranchal Pedrosa, Maria Potop-Butucaru, Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni: Ligh?ng Factories (submihed)