Technologies Quantiques et Sécurité - Enjeux Sociétaux

11/01/2018
OAI : oai:www.see.asso.fr:20797:22293
DOI : You do not have permission to access embedded form.

Résumé

Technologies Quantiques et Sécurité - Enjeux Sociétaux

Métriques

0
0
3.21 Mo
 application/pdf
bitcache://2aedae9ddc4f35560b28440ea294f947b8711bb7

Licence

Creative Commons Aucune (Tous droits réservés)

Sponsors

Organisateurs

f2s_logo.jpg

Partenaires

logo_see.gif
logo_sfo.jpg
logo_sfp.jpeg
sfv_logo.png
<resource  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
                xmlns="http://datacite.org/schema/kernel-4"
                xsi:schemaLocation="http://datacite.org/schema/kernel-4 http://schema.datacite.org/meta/kernel-4/metadata.xsd">
        <identifier identifierType="DOI">10.23723/20797/22293</identifier><creators><creator><creatorName>Grégoire Ribordy</creatorName></creator></creators><titles>
            <title>Technologies Quantiques et Sécurité - Enjeux Sociétaux</title></titles>
        <publisher>SEE</publisher>
        <publicationYear>2018</publicationYear>
        <resourceType resourceTypeGeneral="Text">Text</resourceType><dates>
	    <date dateType="Created">Mon 12 Feb 2018</date>
	    <date dateType="Updated">Mon 12 Feb 2018</date>
            <date dateType="Submitted">Tue 20 Feb 2018</date>
	</dates>
        <alternateIdentifiers>
	    <alternateIdentifier alternateIdentifierType="bitstream">2aedae9ddc4f35560b28440ea294f947b8711bb7</alternateIdentifier>
	</alternateIdentifiers>
        <formats>
	    <format>application/pdf</format>
	</formats>
	<version>36909</version>
        <descriptions>
            <description descriptionType="Abstract"></description>
        </descriptions>
    </resource>
.

ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Janvier 2018 Technologies Quantiques et Sécurité Enjeux Sociétaux Dr. Grégoire Ribordy ID Quantique SA ID Quantique PROPRIETARY ID Quantique – Company Profile Founded in 2001 Geneva, Switzerland Boston, USA (sales office) Hangzhou, PRC (JV) Bristol, UK (set up) By 4 quantum physicists from the University of Geneva Develops technologies and products based on quantum physics within 2 business units: Quantum-Safe Security Quantum Sensing Performs R&D, production, professional services, integration, support Clients : Governments / Banks / Gaming Industry / Universities / IT Security 55 employees in CH, including 30 engineers/scientists ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Cybersecurity ▸ Cybertechnologies are becoming increasingly pervasive. ▸ Cybersecurity is a growing and fundamental part of safety and security of individuals, organizations and society 3 ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Cryptography… 4 ▸ … is a foundational pillar of cybersecurity - Cryptography allows us to achieve information security while using untrusted communication systems. - Example: Do you use e-banking? Why do you trust the system? ID Quantique PROPRIETARY What can be done with cryptography? Confidentiality Integrity Authentication Non-Repudiation Information Security ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Cryptography Environment “We announce preliminary plans for transitioning to quantum resistant algorithms.” Aug. 2015 ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 7 ▸ Quantum Technologies and Quantum Computing ▸ Impact on Cryptography ▸ When worry? ▸ Quantum-Safe Cryptography ▸ Conclusion Overview ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Quantum Computing Progress ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Quantum-Safe Transition “We announce preliminary plans for transitioning to quantum resistant algorithms.” Aug. 2015 ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 15 ▸ Quantum Technologies and Quantum Computing ▸ Impact on Cryptography ▸ When worry? ▸ Quantum-Safe Cryptography ▸ Conclusion Overview ID Quantique PROPRIETARY What can be done with cryptography? Confidentiality Integrity Authentication Non-Repudiation Information Security ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Eve Alice Bob Message Message Scrambled Message Secret Key Secret Key Cryptographic Primitives Public Key Private Key Eve Alice Bob Message Message Scrambled Message Asymmetric Symmetric Confidentiality + other similar primitives for other goals (digitial signatures, etc.) ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 2’357 x 4’201 = ? A x B = 9’901’757 Eve Alice Bob Message Message Scrambled Message Public Key Symmetric Cryptography Private Key Asymmetric Cryptography Secret Key Secret Key Cryptographic Protocol ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Computational Security 19 Computer Science Hard! Easy! ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Cryptography in a World with Quantum Computers 20 Computer Science Hard! Easy! Physics Easy! ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 21 Grover’s Algorithm ▸ Lov Grover, 1996 ▸ Quantum algorithm to perform search in an unsorted database ▸ O(n½) vs O(n) ▸ Key halfed for symmetric cryptography AES-128  64 bits security AES-256  128 bits security Quantum Algorithms & Impact on Today’s Cryptography Can break RSA, Elliptic Curve & Diffie Hellman Shor’s Algorithm ▸ Peter Shor, 1994 ▸ Quantum algorithm for integer factorization O((log N)3) vs. O(e1.9 (log N)1/3 (log log N)2/3) ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Eve Alice Bob Message Message Scrambled Message Public Key Private Key Secret Key Secret Key Cryptographic Primitives Eve Alice Bob Message Message Scrambled Message Asymmetric Symmetric Confidentiality Symmetric crypto primitives: ok (if key long enough) Asymmetric crypto primitives: at risk ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 23 ▸ Quantum Technologies and Quantum Computing ▸ Impact on Cryptography ▸ When worry? ▸ Quantum-Safe Cryptography ▸ Conclusion Overview ID Quantique PROPRIETARY One day in the future! TLS Protocole Insecure E-banking stops working E-commerce stops working Digitial Signature can be forged Upgrades become insecure and hackers can implant malicious code Crypto-currencies loose value Message Authentication can be forged Power grids vulnerablel Autonomous cars can be hacked Network Encryption Insecure Patient data become vulnerable Interbank clearing stops working ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Bart Preneel, Qcrypt 2014 ID Quantique PROPRIETARY When Do We Need to Worry? 27 y x z Time How long do you need encryption to be secure? How much time will it take to re-tool the existing infrastructure with a quantum-safe solution? How long will it take for a large scale quantum computer to be built (or for any other relevant advance x y z Not possible to provide the required x years of security x y z + > y z > System will collapse in z years with no easy fix « Probability = 1/7 by 2026 and 1/2 by 2031 » Prof. Michele Mosca, University of Waterloo Upgrade of ATM’s from DES to 3DES between 2000 and 2010: up to 10 years German law on healthcare data protection: « Beyond lifetime of patient » x + 5 years > 10 years ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 28 Why Is this Important? A Classical Risk Analysis Probability of threat currently low but increasing Risk Impact of threat Extremely high if no action taken – Conduct Quantum-Risk Assessment – – Engineer Crypto Agility – – Enter in the Post-Quantum Era – ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 29 ▸ Quantum Technologies and Quantum Computing ▸ Impact on Cryptography ▸ When worry? ▸ Quantum-Safe Cryptography ▸ Conclusion Overview ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 30 Quantum Key Distribution ▸ Hardware solution. ▸ Typically no computational assumptions and thus known to be secure against future quantum attacks. ▸ Recommended for encryption of high-value information with requirement for long-term confidentiality. − E.g. Data center interconnect, government data The Solution: Quantum-Safe Cryptographic Infrastructure ▸ “Post-quantum” algorithms (aka quantum-resistant algorithms) ▸ Classical codes deployable without quantum technologies. − Eg. Lattice, matrix -based algorithms ▸ Believed to be secure against Shor’s algorithm but no guarantee that there will not be other quantum attacks. ▸ Recommended for quantum-safe digital signatures & end point encryption. ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 31 “1” “1” “0” “0” Fragile! Alice Bob Secret Key Scrambled Message Symmetric Cryptography Secret Key Quantum Cryptography = Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 32 ▸ Provably secure key distribution - Distilled key distribution rate: 1000 bps over 25km/6dB - Range: 100km Quantum key server Quantum Channel – Dark Fiber or multiplexed Quantum-Enabled Network Encryption: Today xWDM Local Area Network Local Area Network ▸ Transparent Layer 2 Encryption - AES-256 up to 100Gbps - Multiprotocol (Ethernet, Fibre Channel) ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 33 Central Vote Counting Station Ballots Downtown Geneva Cerberis QKD Solution Mail Votes 4 km Fiber-based Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) since 2007 Geneva Government Data Center ▸ In 2007 Geneva government installed QKD - Confidentiality & integrity of data during federal & cantonal elections ▸ Deployed by banks and governments since then to protect data-center interconnect ▸ But inherent distance limitation in optical-fibre based QKD ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 34 ▸ QKD-secured data center link large financial institution in the Netherlands. ▸ Installed in 2010. - High-speed encryption - 4 x Ethernet 1G links - 2 x FC-4 links QKD in Data Centers for Financial Companies ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 35 Some connectivity between close locations may require expensive fiber installations to minimize distances. No connections between remote locations. Data sharing using complicated routing and encryption schemes. QKD Trusted Node Networks ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Large Scale Quantum Networks ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Global Quantum Cryptography ID Quantique PROPRIETARY 41 ▸ Quantum Technologies and Quantum Computing ▸ Impact on Cryptography ▸ When worry? ▸ Quantum-Safe Cryptography ▸ Conclusion Overview ID Quantique PROPRIETARY  Get quantum-safe options on vendor roadmaps  Routinely ask about vulnerability of systems to quantum attacks  Include quantum-safe options as desired features  Engage in pilot deployments to prepare for quantum-safe transition  Prioritize by conducting quantum risk assessment  Keep switching costs low  (If appropriate) request the necessary standards for the quantum-safe tools needed  Request the information/studies needed to make wise decisions going forward  Applaud and reward organizations that take this seriously Recommendations for Industry and Governments ID Quantique PROPRIETARY Critical backup Data Disaster recovery center center Use QRA for encryption here Digitally sign with QRA Use QKD for link encryption and QRA for authentication here Protect the Assets in Line with the Risk ID Quantique PROPRIETARY ▸ Quantum Computing poses a systemic threat to our current approach to information security ▸ It is now essential to carry out a « Quantum Risk Assessment » & start planning a transition to Quantum-Safe approaches ▸ A full Quantum-Safe cryptographic architecture will involve a combination of QKD and « Math- based » approaches ▸ Security is a choice! Conclusion ID Quantique PROPRIETARY ▸ Grégoire Ribordy gregoire.ribordy@idquantique.com ▸ ID Quantique SA Geneva, Switzerland www.idquantique.com Thank you for your attention