Quantum Technologies and European Flagship

11/01/2018
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Quantum Technologies and European Flagship

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Quantum Technologies and European Flagship Elisabeth Elisabeth Giacobino Giacobino Laboratoire Kastler Brossel Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Collège de France Paris, France Fifty years ago: the invention of the laser Integrated circuit (Intel) It can contain billions of transitors Replica of the first transistor invented at Bell Labs in 1947 Seventy years ago: the invention of the transistor Moore’s law Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Intel, predicted in 1965 that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit would double approximately every two years The minimal size of a transistor section is presently about 14nm, corresponding to about 50 atoms Classical Regime Quantum Regime 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 1990 104 103 102 101 1 0.1 Year Electrons / device The future is quantum Moore’s law: the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years Eventually the quantum wall will be hit  push back the hitting time (more Moore)  change completely the technology (more than Moore)  and quantum technologies for green IT Quantum Technologies Quantum technologies are already present :  The first quantum revolution has allowed explaining and exploiting the structure and the interactions of atoms, light and matter, in order to design lasers or electronic chips. 6  Second quantum revolution : reaching the level of individual quantum objects to design novel devices Erwin Schrödinger, 1952 In research labs individual quantum objects have been studied for several decades, although it was not obvious in the beginning I t I t Standard quantum limit (SQL) or shot noise = random • Small number of photons : random arrival • Laser beam with a large number of photons : noise Light source Photons from a laser are less disordered than from a thermal source, but still arrive randomly Thermal source Laser Single Photons I t Single photons (on demand)  Photon pairs Squeezed light I t I t Shot noise Squeezed These states provide improved light for communications and measurements tools for quantum processing of information Single photons Single photons and and engineered engineered quantum states of light quantum states of light Sensors with a single particle 2nd quantum revolution When reaching the level of individual quantum objects, the  most surprising and far‐reaching quantum properties, such as superpositions and entanglement, become experimental evidences. These quantum properties open the way to revolutionary methods to process and manipulate the information carried by such objects.  Quantum bit  (qubit)  in superconductors source of  individual photons 10 The superposition principle A B Entanglement B A B A        Polarization of a single photon Quantum cryptography with single polarized photons (BB84) Polarization rotation Polarization rotation Quantum Networks Paris Brisbane  Connection time decays exponentially with the distance  Quantum Repeater  Goal : Connect with a fidelity close to 1 in a “not too long” time 100 km, Telecom fiber : 99.5 % loss For 1000 km, and a qubit source at 10GHz, it would take 300000 years to transmit one qubit…. Schemes for quantum repeater proposed by Briegel, Dur, Cirac, Zoller in 1998 and by Duan, Lukin Cirac, Zoller (DLCZ protocol) in 2001 Quantum teleportation 1 1 1        B A B A AB         initial state of Alice’s photon  entangled photon pair from the EPR source Alice mixes the initial state and photon A from the entangled pair on the beamsplitter and measures the two outputs In 25% of the cases, this projects photons 1 and A onto an entangled state A 1 A 1 1A        where photon A is in the state opposite to 1, whatever it is But since photons A and B had been prepared in the state the measurement also projects photon B in the state opposite to A that is the same state as photon 1 AB  Zeilinger et al 1997 Quantum Repeaters 1) Divide into segments and generate entanglement     L0 L0 L0 L     2) Purify the entanglement         F<1     F~1 « Scalability » : requires the storage of entanglement, which enables an asynchronous preparation of the network : Quantum Memories Fidelity close to 1, long distance… But time exponentially large with the distance Entanglement (often) and purification (always) are probabilistic : each step ends at different times. 3) Entanglement swapping           Quantum computing Fast solution to difficult problems Classical computing : Quantum computing Successive trials State superposition Simultaneous treatment Concept First proposal D. Deutsch 1985 P.W. Schor factoring of large numbers 1994 L. Grover search algorithm 1996 S Lloyd 1996 quantum simulators R. P. Feynman, 1965 Nobel laureate Simulating physics with computers, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21, 467 (1982) Quantum simulation Tide predictiting machine Lord Kelvin1876; used till 1960 Quantum simulation of the Dirac equation with ions Innsbruck (Nature 2010) simulates the Zitterbewegung Tools for quantum computing and quantum simulation Trapped ions superconducting qbits INéel Grenoble CEA SPEC Towards Heterogeneous Networks Cold atoms in lattices Ion registers, microchips, clouds CQED with localized atoms or ions Trapped individual atoms Polar molecules Doped crystals Quantum science and technology in Europe and in France Quantum technologies in France and in Europe 675 Companies French forces • 675 permanent professors and researchers active in the field • Numerous PhD and Post-Docs • 900 scientific publications/year • 15 European Research Council grants laureates • 55 laboratories are concerned • 3 main research organizations are involved : CNRS, CEA, INRIA • around 50 French companies and 20 European companies collaborate with them Espagne Nice CEMES, LCAR, LPCNO, LPT I Fresnel, LIF, PIIM LP2N ICF INPHYNI I Neel, INAC, LETI LIG, LPMMC ILM, ICJ, INL LIR, LPENS PHLAM IEMN XLIMM Troyes LNIO Besançon FEMTO IPCMS IPR Paris QT in France LPTM LPL, LSPM GEMAC IphT, SPEC, IRFU CdF, LKB, LPA, IL, IRCP, SYRTE, INRIA LAC, C2N, LPS, LCP, LPTMS, ISMO Villetaneuse LCF, CPhT, LSI, ONERA LTCI, MPQ, IRIF Some numbers: * 300 CNRS, CEA or Univ. staff,  * 250 doctoral students * 100 post‐doctoral students,  * 650 researchers total  * >100 teams,  30 laboratories * gathers computer scientists and  physicists from condensed matter,  cold atoms, quantum optics,  metrology, material science... Cergy Paris 5e,13e,14e Versailles Palaiseau Orsay Saclay  Gif sur Yvette LPTMC, LIP6 Network in the Ile de France Region SIRTEQ National and regional initiatives for Quantum Technologies • 2 National networks concerning quantum science and technology • 6 national fabrication platforms • 4 Excellence Initiative (IDEX) • 5 LABEX (Laboratory of Excellence) coordinated in the framework of the national network IQFA • Several regional Initiatives 2 8  Ingénierie Quantique, des aspects Fondamentaux aux Applications Quantum engineering, from Fundamentals to Applications Gather Academical (50 labs / 100 teams) and Industrial partners http://gdriqfa.unice.fr Two large networks supported by CNRS: GdR Research groups  GDR atomes froids, Research Network on cold atoms The network consists in Six main facilities: • CEA-Leti, an integration center micro and nanotechnologies • academic facilities FEMTO, IEMN, LAAS, C2N and LTM managed by CNRS and universities (Renatech network) operating 7,000m2 of clean-rooms. Six main fabrication platforms ANR: National Research Agency • Specific budgets for Quantum Technologies defined by the Ministery, starting in 2018 : 10M€/year • Direct participation to European financing : 3 M€ contribution to the QUANTERA (Eranet) call • Japan : an agreement for a common call on QTs was signed recently  Broad Scope: Quantum (« Q ») communication, Q simulation, Q computation, Q information sciences, Q metrology sensing and imaging, Novel ideas and applications in quantum science and technologies  Low TRLs targeted, FET-like: Long-term vision, Breakthrough S&T target, Novelty, Foundational, High-risk, Interdisciplinary  Project size: 1 to 2 M€, at least 3 partners from 3 countries, 2 to 3 years QuantERA Co QuantERA Co- -funded Call funded Call QuantERA: FET ERA-NET Cofund Action in Quantum Technologies QuantERA Consortium QuantERA Consortium coordinated by NCN (Poland)  Poland – NCN, NCBR  Austria – FWF, FFG  Belgium – FNRS, FWO  Bulgaria – NBSF  Czech Republic – MSMT  Denmark – IFD  Finland – AKA  France – ANR  Germany, BMBF, VDI-TZ  Greece – GSRT  Hungary – NKFIH  Ireland – SFI  Israel - MATIMOP  Italy – MIUR, CNR  Latvia – VIAA  Netherlands – FOM  Norway ‐ RCN  Portugal – FCT  Romania – UEFISCDI  Slovakia – SAS  Slovenia – MIZS  Spain – MINECO  Sweden – VR  Switzerland – SNSF  Turkey – TUBITAK  United Kingdom – EPSRC, IUK 26 countries, 31 26 countries, 31 organizations organizations Contributions of the Member States and associated countries, together with the EC : 38 M€ Call budget 34 M€ QuantERA Strategic Advisory Board Alain Aspect Institut d'Optique Tommaso Calarco Universität Ulm  Bruno Desruelle Muquans Francesca Ferlaino Universität Innsbruck Ataç İmamoğlu ETH Zürich Peter L. Knight, Imperial College Hans Mooij Technische Universiteit Delft Kelly Richdale Vice President Quantum Safe Security idQuantique Anna Sanpera Universitat Autònoma Barcelona Andrew Shields Toshiba Research Labs Europe Marek Żukowski Uniwersytet Gdański • Launch of the call: January 2017  Deadline for pre-proposals: 15 March 2017 220 pre-proposals submitted  Notification of accepted pre-proposals: May 2017 92 pre-proposals accepted  Deadline for full proposals: 10 July 2017  Rebuttal stage: September 2017  Notification of accepted proposals: October 2017 26 proposals accepted  Projects start: early 2018 QuantERA Co QuantERA Co‐ ‐funded Call funded Call European Quantum Technologies Flagship https://ec.europa.eu/digital‐single‐market/en/news/intermediate‐report‐quantum‐flagship‐high‐level‐expert‐group 1 billion euros over 10 years 1st call for proposals is open (dead line end of February): 148 M€ Report handed over to the European Commission Nov 2017 Amsterdam 17 May 2016 Presentation of Quantum Manifesto Quantum Manifesto 1. Communication A Core technology of quantum repeaters B Secure point-to-point quantum links C Quantum networksbetween distant cities D Quantum credit cards E Quantum repeaters with cryptography and eavesdropping detection F Secure Europe-wide internet merging quantum and classical communication 2. Simulators A Simulator of motion of electronsin materials B New algorithmsfor quantum simulatorsand networks C Development and design of new complex materials D Versatile simulator of quantum magnetism and electricity E Simulatorsof quantum dynamicsand chemical reaction mechanismsto support drug design 3.Sensors A Quantum sensorsfor niche applications(incl.gravity and magnetic sensorsfor health care,geosurvey and security) B More precise atomic clocks for C Quantum sensorsfor larger volume applicationsincluding automotive,construction D Handheld quantum navigation devices E Gravity imaging devicesbased on gravity sensors F Integrate quantum sensors with consumer applications including mobile devices 4.Computers A Operation of alogical qubit protected by error correction or topologically B New algorithmsfor quantum computers C Small quantum processor executing technologically relevant algorithms D Solving chemistry and materialsscience problems with special purpose quantum computer > 100 physical qubit E Integration of quantum circuit and cryogenic classical control hardware F General purpose quantum computersexceed computational power of classical computers 5 –10 years 0 –5 years > 10 years Members of the High Level Steering Committee • Prof. Dr. Jürgen Mlynek, Chairman • Prof. Dr. Rainer Blatt, Academic Member (AM) • Prof. Dr. Vladimir Buzek, AM • Prof. Dr. Tommaso Calarco, AM • Prof. Dr. Per Delsing, AM • Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Giacobino, AM • Prof. Dr. hab. Marek Kus, AM • Prof. Dr. Eugene Simon Polzik, AM • Dr. Maria Luisa Rastello, AM • Prof. Dr. ir. Wim Van Saarloos, AM • Prof. Dr. Lluis Torner, AM • Prof. Ian Walmsley, AM • Prof. Dr. Maria Chiara Carrozza, Observer • Dr. Gustav Kalbe, European Commission (EC) • Beatrice Marquez-Garrido, EC • Matyas Kovacs, Assistant to the Chairman • Dr. Marco Wedel, Assistant to the Chairman Academic Members Industrial members Mr. Paolo Bianco Airbus Defense & Space UK Dr. Markus Matthes ASML Dr. Cyril Allouche Atos SE Dr. Fabio Cavaliere Ericsson Dr. Grégoire Ribordy ID Quantique Ms. Jaya Baloo KPN Dr Graeme Malcolm M2 Lasers Dr. Michael Bolle Robert Bosch Dr. Norbert Lütke-Entrup Siemens AG Dr. Guido Chiaretti ST Micro Mr. Daniel Dolfi Thales Dr. Iñigo Artundo Martinez VLC Photonics Tasks of the High Level Steering Committee to deliver advice to the DG CONNECT on (1)a Strategic Research Agenda, taking into account industrial aspects, with • a long term roadmap for the flagship and • a detailed agenda for the H2020 ramp-up phase that should start in 2018 (2) an Implementation Model, it should propose a concrete implementation approach both for the short term ramp-up phase within H2020 as well as for the longer term beyond H2020; (3) a Governance Model, • internal governance of the flagship • relations with Member States, with the Commission and with the relevant funding agencies. The group should consolidate contributions from the wider community of relevant stakeholders from academia, industry and Member States. Strategic research agenda • four QT pillars :Simulation; Communication; Computing; Metrology and Sensing and Enabling Science as a transverse cross- cutting domain • Inclusiveness should be rooted on excellence, together with industrial perspective • Breakthroughs resulting in disruptive technologies are expected. For this high-risk projects should be supported • Place Europe at the forefront of second quantum revolution Governance structure of the new European QT Flagship Project Principles • simple and efficient organizational structures, implementing experiences from other flagships • the governance setup will promote the final Strategic Research Agenda priorities • the structures have to be effective on all levels, from stakeholder representation to the scientific, advisory, executive boards, including efficient feedback loops Governance model for the QT Flagship 130 M€ Work Programme 2018-2020 WP 2018-2010 : funding • a. Quantum Communication • b. Quantum Computing Systems • c. Quantum Simulation • d. Quantum Metrology and Sensing • e. Fundamental science • For areas a. to d., proposals should be based on a close cooperation between academia and industry • The Commission considers that proposals for Research and Innovation Actions requesting a contribution from the EU up to EUR 10 million would allow the areas a. to d. to be addressed appropriately; • proposals requesting a contribution from the EU between EUR 2 and 3 million would allow the area e. to be addressed appropriately. Timeline : 1st Flagship Call Opening : 31 Oct 2017, Deadline : 20 Feb 2018 48 HLSC  final  report First Flagship calls Evaluation Flagship projects National Initiatives HLSC intermediate  report QuantERA call QuantERA projects Fall 2017 Feb. 2017 Summer 2018 Spring 2018 Fall 2018 Jan. 2019 2021 St 1 Stage 2 Evaluation Call and appications Recent events • The HLSC report was presented on September 19 by the Chairman, Prof. Jürgen Mlynek, to the Board of Funders (European Commission and representatives of member states) • The report is now available on the Commission website https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single- market/en/news/quantum-flagship-high-level-expert- group-publishes-final-report • The workprogramme 2018-2020 is available https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/sites/horiz on2020/files/02._h2020-fet-2018- 2020_09_21_2017_prepublication.pdf Thank you for your attention