Models for dimensioning hybrid morphing airfoil actuating system

03/02/2015
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Models for dimensioning hybrid morphing airfoil actuating system

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application/pdf Models for dimensioning hybrid morphing airfoil actuating system Gurvan Jodin, Johannes Scheller, Karl-Joseph Rizzo, Eric Duhayon, Jean-François Rouchon, Marianna Braza
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Models for dimensioning hybrid morphing airfoil actuating system

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Models for dimensioning hybrid morphing airfoil actuating system Gurvan Jodin (1), Johannes Scheller (2), Karl-Joseph Rizzo (3), Eric Duhayon (4), Jean-François Rouchon (5), Marianna Braza (6) 1: LAPLACE- IMFT, gurvan.jodin@laplace.univ-tlse.fr, 2: LAPLACE- IMFT, johannes.scheller@laplace.univ-tlse.fr, 3: LAPLACE, kjrizzo@laplace.univ-tlse.fr, 4: LAPLACE, eric.duhayon@laplace.univ-tlse.fr, 5: LAPLACE, rouchon@laplace.univ-tlse.fr, 6: IMFT, marianna.braza@imft.fr, Abstract The present paper will describe actuation models of hybrid morphing wing equipped with both Shape Memory Alloy Actuators providing large deformations over a limited frequency range as well as Piezoelectric Actuators providing small deformations with a large bandwidth. First order models allow the determination of the influence of the system specification on the actuator sizing. The model design aims to demonstrate the links between the aerodynamic drag reduction functions, the mass and the power consumption. This work takes place in cooperation with AIRBUS to demonstrate the gains and feasibility of the electro-active hybrid morphing. Introduction Today’s wing geometries are usually a trade-off between the optimal shapes at different phases of the flight. Control surfaces, while modifying the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil, usually exhibit poor aerodynamic performance and efficiency [9]. Adaptive or morphing structures hold the potential to solve this problem and studies on wing deformation are subject of much interest in the aerospace domain. Recent advances made in the field of smart-materials have renewed this interest [15, 8]. As part of collaborative effort from two French laboratories (LAPLACE and IMFT), a prototype NACA 4412 wing was developed with embedded Shape memory alloys (SMA) and trailing-edge piezoelectric fibre actuators. This allowed both large deformations (~10% of the chord) at limited frequency (≤ 1Hz) and small deformations (several mm) at high frequencies (≤100Hz) [4]. The characteristics of the SMA technology, which were activated using the well understood Joule effect [7], make it especially suitable to optimize the shape of the wing and to control the flight [1, 13]. The high-frequent but low amplitude piezoelectric technology on the other hand is useful to produce trailing-edge vortex breakdown [11, 5, 14]. Whereas the hybridization of different smart-materials is a first to the authors’ knowledge various previous studies have already addressed the use of SMAs [1, 7, 12, 13] and piezoelectric actuators [2, 3, 6, 10] separately. In the case of the cooperation with AIRBUS, the present work aims to develop models for the actuator sizing for different size mock-ups. The actuators’ specifications depend on the fluid-structure interaction. This paper will present the impact of the specifications and the design choices on the volume, the weight and the energy consumption of the system. The study is based on the actuation concepts of the prototype presented in Figure 1. This abstract will briefly introduce the models for the quasi static camber control and the high frequency actuation. The most important parameters of the actuation systems are provided by the analysis of the models. Fig. 1: NACA4412 mock-up equipped with SMA for camber control and piezoelectric actuators for vibrating trailing edge. Vibrating trailing edge Camber control Model design As mentioned in the introduction the hybrid morphing concept concerns two different types of actuation systems. Fig. 2: The two simple models The first one is large deformation at low frequency. A first simple model has been developed, based on a bending beam actuated by SMA wires and carrying aerodynamic loads. A more precise numerical model taking the spatial distribution of the SMAs into account is currently being developed. This model is a finite element model created using ANSYS software. It has been designed according to the NACA4412 prototype. The second actuation system creates low amplitude but high frequency deformation. Piezoelectric bimorph [3] and vibrating solid trailing edge driven by piezoelectric stacks [4] are investigated. It has been shown that different actuation system can be described by the same model. The two simple models are presented in Figure 2. The quasi static punctual model is equivalent to a spring, an actuator and an aerodynamic loading whereas a mass is added for the dynamic model. The analytical models are parameterized. The impact of each parameter is determined. The most important parameters are identified. This is necessary to avoid an over-sizing of the morphing system which can create a non-feasible result. Application One application of the developed models is the sizing of the next prototype. This mock-up is based on an Airbus’ 2D airfoil profile and aims to study the benefit of hybrid morphing on Airbus airfoil geometries. As the mock-up shown in Figure 1, the trailing edge is actuated. Applying the beam theory on the upper and lower skin, the models from Figure 2 are valid. The specifications regarding the performance (displacement under actuation, displacement under aerodynamic loading …) are used with the analytical models to solve the design variables (skin thickness, number of SMA wires…). This study shows that the influences of the design variables on the performances are non-linear and sizing by optimization may be used. The design of the vibrating trailing edge illustrates this. A beam composed of a piezoelectric patch glued on an aluminium bulk is considered. For a chosen piezoelectric material thickness and a total beam length, the maximal vibrating amplitude is obtained with a certain value of the aluminium thickness. The maximal amplitude depending on the different thicknesses is drawn in Figure 3. Fig. 3: Maximal vibrating amplitude as a function of the piezoelectric thickness and the beam length. As another example, the frequency and amplitude of the vibrating trailing edge is specified by the aerodynamic behaviour. It will be shown that the frequency is more critical than the amplitude regarding the dimensioning of the electric power converter. In fact, the needed mechanical power of an actuated vibrating inertia is given by Equation 1. is the amplitude, is the angular frequency, 1 and 1 the inertia and length of a reference design. The chosen length is a design parameter that has no influence on the power. This equation shows that the average power is null, the losses (not modelled here) are the only energy consumers. The maximum power is proportional to the square of the amplitude and proportional to the third power of the frequency. So the choice of the frequency specification is very important to avoid a heavy design due to the power converters. 0 200 400 600 0 5 10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Beam length (mm) Piezoelectric thickness (mm) Max amplitude at 100Hz (mm) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Aluminium thickness (mm) (Eq. 1) Conclusions and Outlook The work to be presented deals with the dimensioning of hybrid electro-active morphing wings. Several mechanisms are investigated and modelled. The results are applied to determine the key parameters of the design. This work is part of a full scale hybrid electro-active project. References 1. S. Barbarino, W. Dettmer, and M. Friswell. Morphing trailing edges with shape memory alloy rods. In Proceedings of 21st International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST), volume 4, 2010. 2. A. A. Bent. Active fiber composites for structural actuation. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1997. 3. O. Bilgen, K. B. Kochersberger, D. J Inman, and O. J Ohanian III. Macro-fiber composite actuated simply supported thin airfoils. Smart Materials and Structures, 19(5):055010, 2010. 4. M. Chinaud, J. Scheller, J. F. Rouchon, E. Duhayon, and M. Braza. Hybrid Electroactive Wings Morphing for Aeronautic Applications. Solid State Phenomena, 198:200–205, 2013. 5. S. R. Hall, T. Tzianetopoulou, F. K Straub, and H. T Ngo. Design and testing of a double X-frame piezoelectric actuator. In SPIE’s 7th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, pages 26–37. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000. 6. E. B. Magrab. Vibrations of Elastic Systems: With Applications to MEMS and NEMS, volume 184. Springer, 2012. 7. J. E. Manzo. Analysis and design of a hyper- elliptical cambered span morphing aircraft wing. PhD thesis, Cornell University, 2006. 8. A-M. Rivas McGowan, W. K. Wilkie, R. W. Moses, R. C. Lake, J. Pinkerton Florance, Carol D Wieseman, M. C Reaves, B. K Taleghani, P. H Mirick, and M. L Wilbur. Aeroservoelastic and structural dynamics research on smart structures conducted at NASA langley research center. In 5th SPIE International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, San Diego, CA, 1998. 9. N. Ursache, T. Melin, A. Isikveren, and M. Friswell. Morphing Winglets for Aircraft Multi- Phase Improvement. In 7th AIAA ATIO Conf, 2nd CEIAT Int’l Conf on Innov & Integr in Aero Sciences, 17th LTA Systems Tech Conf; followed by 2nd TEOS Forum, Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conferences. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, September 2007. 10. J-S. Park and J-H. Kim. Analytical development of single crystal macro fiber composite actuators for active twist rotor blades. Smart materials and structures, 14(4):745, 2005. 11. E. F. Prechtl and S. R Hall. Design of a high efficiency, large stroke, electromechanical actuator. Smart Materials and Structures, 8(1):13, 1999. 12. J-F. Rouchon, D. Harribey, E. Derri, and M. Braza. Activation d’une voilure déformable par des câbles d’AMF répartis en surface. 20ème Congrès Français de Mécanique, 28 août/2 sept. 2011-25044 Besançon, France (FR), 2011. 13. G. Song and N. Ma. Robust control of a shape memory alloy wire actuated flap. Smart materials and Structures, 16(6):N51, 2007. 14. F. K Straub, D. K Kennedy, A. D. Stemple, VR Anand, and T. S Birchette. Development and whirl tower test of the SMART active flap rotor. San Diego, CA, USA, March, 2004. 15. T. A Weisshaar. Morphing aircraft systems: Historical perspectives and future challenges. Journal of Aircraft, 50(2):337–353, 2013.