Position Control of Direct-Driven Hydraulic Drive without Conventional Oil Tank for More Electric Aircraft

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Position Control of Direct-Driven Hydraulic Drive without Conventional Oil Tank for More Electric Aircraft


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Position Control of Direct-Driven Hydraulic Drive without Conventional Oil Tank for More Electric Aircraft


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Position Control of Direct-Driven Hydraulic Drive without Conventional Oil Tank for More Electric Aircraft Tatiana Minav(1), Matti Pietola (1) 1 : Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Engineering Design and production, Fluid Power, Finland Abstract The direct-driven hydraulic drive (DDH) combines the advantages of compact high power of the hydraulic system and flexible control of the electric motor. This paper investigates the direct-driven hydraulic setup for MEA application. In the proposed setup, the speed and position control of a double-acting cylinder is implemented directly with a Synchronous Torque Motor drive in a close-loop system without conventional control valves and oil tank. In relation to this, hydraulic accumulator is employed as a replacement of the conventional oil tank. On this research only single feedback is applied from motor’s rotor encoder for position and speed control of this closed-loop system. As a result, excellent control capabilities of a modern electric drive brings along safety functions and monitoring capabilities of the motor and controller to benefit the hydraulic system. The system is investigated by means of measurements. Introduction Similar to the automotive industry the aerospace industry is facing challenges in terms of improving emissions, fuel economy, and also cost. The increasing use of electrical and electronic features to improve performance, fuel economy and safety has already resulted in the growth of electrical proposals in both industries. Electrically powered control systems, electrical actuators, and electric de-icing are some examples of the aircraft systems under consideration. Low-power electrohydraulic compact drives are needed in automotive and aerospace industry. It needs to meet user requirements in terms of compactness and energy and cost efficiency. Therefore, the implementation combines the advantages of electric motor drive and reduction of hydraulic components. Using of a single rod cylinder creates additional challenge, as difference between cylinder’s areas creates unequal volume flow. Balancing the volume flow is disclosed in a number of publications (1-5). Previous research showed that hydraulic circuits’ modifications include complicated valve logic and/or variable-displacement pumps, for instance, in the following applications: power steering (6, 7), industrial press (8 -10) and non-road mobile machines (11-13). Removing of the conventional oil tank is common in airplane applications, where weight and size reduction is very important (14-16). Therefore, in this paper, direct-driven hydraulic setup (DDH) as a pump-controlled system is investigated without conventional oil tank to achieve a compact and efficient solution. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed ideal test setup. Fig. 1. Proposed Ideal test setup The working principle of proposal structure can be described as follows: A speed-controlled electric servo motor drive rotates a hydraulic pump to directly control the amount of hydraulic oil pumped into the system and at the same time, hydraulic motor pumped out oil from the second side of the double- acting cylinder. The hydraulic pump and motor create a flow depending on the rotating speed of the servo motor. Hydraulic accumulator is used as a conventional tank replacement. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the realization of setup, schematics of the system and the components employed. Section 3 shows empirical results and analysis. Section 4 contains concluding remarks. Realization of test setup From Figure 1, displacement of pump/motor units should match cylinder dimensions. As a double-acting cylinder MIRO C-10-60/30x400 A-55 was applied, strict demand for choosing pump/motor of ideal pump ratio Rideal=0.75 was created. From Bosch Rexroth catalogues to match pump ratio following components were chosen: AZMF-12-AZMF 011U and 008U hydraulic pumps (17) with displacement of 11 10 -6 and 8 10 -6 m 3 /rev, , respectably. Therefore, real pump ratio Rreal becomes equal to 0.73. Based on the difference between ideal and real ratios proposed setup were realized with modifications as shown in the simplified schematics Figure 2. In this case of single rod cylinder combined with a pump- speed control, the challenge is to manage the unequal volume flows of the cylinder. The balancing volume flow caused by the rod has to be charged or discharged to accumulators, depending on direction of the motion. Hydraulic accumulator A (Figure 2, l) is applied as a conventional tank replacement. Hydraulic accumulator B (Figure 2, g) used as for flow balancing. Both accumulators manufactured by Parker were employed in test setup (18). The setup uses a speed-controlled electric servo motor IndraDyn T and a frequency converter IndraDrive manufactured by Bosch Rexroth (19, 20). Motor rotates two hydraulic pump/motors. This allows direct position control of double-acting cylinder. The frequency converter uses motor feedback system SEK90 by Sick (21) which mounted directly on the drive shaft and offers an accurate speed control in the test setup. Fig. 2: Simplified schematics of test setup: a) double- acting cylinder, b) wire-actuated encoder, c) pressure sensor, d) reversible gear pump/motor P_1, e) incremental encoder, f) PMSM motor/generator, g), hydraulic accumulator B, h) pressure sensor, i) reversible gear pump/motor P_2, j) current and voltage probes, k) frequency converter, l) hydraulic accumulator A and m) pressure sensor in tank line. The b, h and j are only for research purposes. Frequency converter software was introduced to measure the rotating speed and torque of the PMSM. Figure 2 also shows the locations of pressure, current, voltage and height sensors. These sensors installed for academic purposes only. Gems 3100R0400S pressure transducers (22), installed at the pump’s inlet and outlet, and were userd to measure system pressures. The wire-actuated encoder SIKO SGI (IV58M-0039) was used to measure actual velocity and height of the cylinder’s piston rod (23). Figure 3 illustrates photograph of test setup. Fig.3: photograph of test setup. Empirical results The following section contains a measurement result for the verification of the accuracy of the position control. Figure 4 illustrates the sample cycle used for cylinder rod position system repeatability. Fig. 4: Sample cycle: Figure 5 shows example of measured data with payload 140 kg and motor speed 400 rpm: measured and estimated cylinder’s rod position and position error. Fig. 5: Example of data with payload 140 kg and motor speed 400 rpm. Conclusions This research concentrated on analysing the possibilities of using a modern electric drive in controlling the position of the cylinder rod in a direct driven electro-hydraulic system without conventional tank. Measurements proved that the control suits this kind of an application and is approaching the required accuracy for position control. Measurements results performed with sample cycle showed that the final position error in tests with all payloads is fairly good, and varies between 1 and 3 %. Acknowledgments The research was enabled by the financial support of ECV Tubridi-project (Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation) and internal funding at the Department of Engineering Design and Production at Aalto University. References 1. Zimmerman, J. & Ivantysynova, M. Hydraulic Displacement Controlled Multi-Actuator Hydraulic Systems. Teoksessa: Proceedings of the 12th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power. Tampere, Finland, 18.-20.5.2011. vol. 3. 2. Zheng, J.-m. & Zhao, S.-d. & Wei, S.-g. Application of Self-tuning PID Controller for SRM Direct Drive Volume Control Hydraulic Press. Control Engineering Practice, 2009. vol. 17:12. 3.Habibi, S. & Goldenberg, A. Design of a New High- Performance Electro-Hydraulic Actuator. Proceedings of the IEEE/ASME conference on Transactions on Mechatronics. 2000. vol 5:2. 4. Wheeler, P.W. & Clare, J.C. & Apap, M. & Empringham, L. & Bradley, K.J. & Whitley, C. & Towers, G. A Matrix Converter Based Permanent Magnet Motor Drive for an Electro-Hydrostatic Aircraft Actuator. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society. Roanoke, USA, 2.-6.11.2011. IEEE, 2003. vol 3 5. EHA catalog by Parker, available at http://www.parker.com/ 6. N.Daher, M. Ivantysynova, Electro-hydraulic energy-saving power steering systems of the future, the 7th FPNI PhD Symposium on Fluid power, Reggio Emilia, Italy, 27-30 June, 2012 7. J.Jiang, W. Su and Q. Liu, Direct drive electro- hydraulic servo rotary vane steering gear, Proceedings of the 7th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Toyama 2008, September 15-18, 2008 8. Shuguo Wei, Shengdun Zhao, Jianming Zheng, Self-tuning Fuzzy Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Directly-driven Hydraulic Press, World Congress on Software Engineering, 2009. 9. S.Michel, J.Weber, Electrohydraulic compact- drives for low power applications considering energy- efficiency and high inertial loads, the 7th FPNI PhD Symposium on Fluid power, Reggio Emilia, Italy, 27- 30 June, 2012 10. C. Meyer, O. Cochoy, H.Murrenhoff, Simulation of a multivariable control systems for an independent metering valve configuration,The 12th Scandinavian International conference on Fluid Power, May 18-20, 2011, Tampere, Finland 11. S.Räcklebe, T. Radermacher, J.Weber, Reduction of cycle time for injection moulding machines with electric hydrostatic drives,The 12th Scandinavian International conference on Fluid Power, May 18-20, 2011, Tampere, Finland 12. J. Zimmerman, M. Ivantysynova, Hybrid displacement controlled multi-actuator hydraulic systems, The 12th Scandinavian International conference on Fluid Power, May 18-20, 2011, Tampere, Finland 13. T. Minav, C. Bonato, P. Sainio, M. Pietola, Direct Driven Hydraulic Drive. Proceedings of the 9th International Fluid Power Conference. Aachen, Germany, 24.-26.3.2014. 14. L. Marton and A. Varga, Detection of Overload Generated Faults in Electro-Hydrostatic Actuators, 19th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation Aquis Corfu Holiday Palace, Corfu, GreeceJune 20-23, 2011 15. Qian Zhang, Bingqiang Li, Feedback Linearization PID Control for Electro-hydrostatic Actuator, 2011 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Management Science and Electronic Commerce (AIMSEC). 16. Youzhe Ji, Song Peng, Li Geng, Zhanlin Wang, Lihua Qiu, Pressure Loop Control of Pump and Valve Combined EHA Based on FFIM, The Ninth International Conference on Electronic Measurement & Instruments ICEMI’2009. 17. AZMF-12-AZMF, available at http://www.boschrexroth-us.com/ 18. Diaphragm Accumulators, available at http://www.parker.com/ 19. IndraDyn T Synchronous Torque Motors MBT - Project Planning Manual 20. Drive System Rexroth IndraDrive, https://www.boschrexroth.com/country_units/europe/n orway/download/71511AE201007.pdf 21. SEK160-HN110AK02, available at http://www.sick- automation.ru/images/File/pdf/DIV07/SEK90_120.pdf 22. Gemssensors 3100R0400S pressure transducers, http://www.gemssensors.com/Products/Pressure/Pres sure-Tranducers , visited on September, 2013. 23. SIKO SGI (IV58M-0039), http://www.siko- global.com/en-de , visited on October, 2013.