On Hinge Rotary Electro Mechanical Actuator development for primary flight control surfaces

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On Hinge Rotary Electro Mechanical Actuator development for primary flight control surfaces


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Symposium More Electrical Aircraft, 2015, 4-5 February, Toulouse, France On Hinge Rotary Electro Mechanical Actuator development for primary flight control surfaces SASSIER Aurore Sagem Défense Sécurité- Division Avionique 21 Avenue du Gros Chêne 95610 Eragny aurore .sassier@sagem.com BAXERRES Laura AIRBUS Operations S.A.S laura.baxerres@airbus.com GADANT Hervé Sagem Défense Sécurité- Division Avionique 21 Avenue du Gros Chêne 95610 Eragny herve.gadant@sagem.com TODESCHI Michel AIRBUS Operations S.A.S michel.todeschi@airbus.com Abstract Presentation Actual Aircraft architectures upgrades are turning toward electrification of the flight control functions at the expense of hydraulic actuators. A380 is equipped with EBHA and EHA which are a first step toward EMA integration as EMA shall allow decreasing the weight by suppressing the hydraulic components. But several topics that are not to be addressed with EBHA or EHA are still to be solved. First of all, safety issues, where a hydraulic actuator will naturally turn into a damping mode when losing control or jamming the pump, an EMA will jam, suppliers will have to demonstrate a low failure rate or will have to propose architectures to solve this issue, reliability of the power drive electronic can be mentioned too. Then several technical issues such as the best gear topology, the best lubrication, how to fit in the expected envelop and how to transpose hydraulic functions into electric ones still require R&T researches. For several years, Sagem (SAFRAN Group) - Flight Control Systems department - is studying new concepts and new architectures through its R&T Roadmaps, concerning Electro Mechanical Actuators and future primary FCS. After linear topology development, achieved by Flight Tests on an A320 aircraft in 2011 through COVADIS project, FRACASS project, an ‘On Hinge’ rotary EMA for the same primary application, offers a decrease of weight and is an excellent alternative to complex kinematics, which are less compatible with the integration of EMA onto thin wings. This EMA shall be capable of a new ‘Active-Active’ mode which allow decreasing the constraints on mechanical design of the EMAs. These two projects have been supported by the French DGAC, where Airbus and Sagem are partners. Project objectives The objective of FRACASS project are: - To study the split of primary surfaces into several surfaces to avoid jamming issues and increase safety margin at aircraft level - To develop an on hinge rotary EMA, and to assess the integration into wing and tail compared to a linear topology - To validate the active active mode, which aim is to decrease loads on the EMAs and to limit the influence of mechanical backlash at surface level - To develop the EMA with HVDC in order to decrease aircraft wires diameter - To validate the ability to develop an optimized EMA that can be fitted on aileron Rudder or Elevators This paper presents FRACASS project main results, to the study and maturity obtained for the rotary EMA technology, the design and manufacturing of a prototype and the performances tested to reach a TRL 4 with an On Hinge’ rotary EMA capable of managing the Active-Active mode. To match our target, we have developed a test bench capable of testing the EMA in a representative environment with an adaptive range of torque, dynamic and inertia. To do so, a functional analysis was performed to identify the critical functions of Hydraulic actuators to be turned into electric. Sizing tools were done to design the high torque mechanical transmission, and software and mechanical behaviour modelling were performed in order to validate the expected performances of the actuator. A test plan on sub- modules was identified as necessary to validate the GearBox conception. A specific study of force- fighting algorithm was done in parallel. Symposium More Electrical Aircraft, 2015, 4-5 February, Toulouse, France EMA Architecture The rotary aileron EMA demonstrator tested by Sagem includes the following main sub- components: • A brushless Synchronous DC motor • A high torque gearbox that allows reaching the needed performances in the restricted envelop. • A high precision torque sensor to meet the Force-Fight algorithm’s needs. • A power drive electronic plugged on an HVDC power network with allowed power rejection. • End-stops. • Dry lubrication Sub-modules tests and results Gearbox sub-module has been tested up to 6 aircraft life durations, thermal behaviour was monitored and backlash was measured regularly. No significant deviation occurred. Several lubricants have also been assessed during sub-modules testing phases. All mechanical parts were verified after endurance and some design recommendation were issued. EMA tests and results A test bench for EMA global integration validation was developed and validated, it allows to test EMAs up to 3000Nm, the maximum rate is 75°/s . The integrated ‘On Hinge’ Rotary Aileron EMA has been manufactured and were tested with an HVDC power drive electronic to assess its performance at both ambient, high (+75°C) and low (-55°C) temperature and to assess the thermal behaviour under representatives conditions. The frequency response and the stability are satisfying at all temperatures. Duty-cycle has been computed to reduce the global test duration, and first endurance results shows minor evolutions in the EMA performances. Force-Fight issue Regarding force-fight algorithm, a joint development phase was performed with Airbus in order to write the statement of work for developing this function. Then several algorithms with different levels of complexity were done and the remaining force-fight was evaluated. The Force-Fight algorithm allows guaranteeing that the remaining force-fight is under the limit specified in all stabilized phases. Conclusion To conclude, FRACASS project has reached its objective to demonstrate TRL4 and to demonstrate the feasibility of dealing with Force-fight in an active- active configuration. The project has taken benefits of COVADIS project in using Damping solution already developed for the linear topology. Sagem linear topology has been tested in flight via COVADIS Project and now FRACASS On hinge Rotary Aileron has given most of the key warranties to authorize a rotary EMA prototype to fly too. Keywords : Actuator, on-hinge, electrical, flight controls systems, force-fight, reliability, HVDC, rotary, active-active, endurance Acronyms : A/C : Aircraft COVADIS: COmmande de Vol Avec Distribution de l’Intelligence et Intégration du Système EMA : Electro Mechanical Actuator FCS : Flight Control System FRACASS : FRActionnement de surfaces de Commande de vol pour Actionneurs Simplifiés et Standardisés HVDC : High Voltage Direct Current R&T :Research & Technology TRL : Technology readiness level For Aileron or Spoilers applications, EMA topology can be Rotary or Linear. The rotary EMA is usually used in robotics or manufacturing automated tools. However, when output torque required for FCS is high and when the wings thickness is reduced, envelop seems unreachable by a rotary EMA based on conventional industrial types gear trains. Furthermore, the dreaded backlash and wear issues could also be a real challenge with such EMA. FRACASS prototype was manufactured in order to demonstrate that the required envelop for integration in an A320 A/C is achievable and to assess backlash and wear of the gears. One other topic specific for Aileron application is the management of Force-Fighting when command laws are based on an Active-Active mode. An algorithm that reduces drastically the force-fight contribution whatever the dispersions of Motor or Electronic characteristics have been evaluated in different configuration and provide good results on the global behaviour of the commanded surface in Active-Active mode.