Design of embedded electromechanical power hinge mini actuators for electric aircraft concept

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Design of embedded electromechanical power hinge mini actuators for electric aircraft concept


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        <identifier identifierType="DOI">10.23723/10638/20142</identifier><creators><creator><creatorName>S. L. Samsonovich</creatorName></creator><creator><creatorName>I. I. Ogoltsov</creatorName></creator><creator><creatorName>V. S. Stepanov</creatorName></creator><creator><creatorName>N. B. Rozhnin</creatorName></creator><creator><creatorName>N. V. Krylov</creatorName></creator><creator><creatorName>M. A. Makarin</creatorName></creator></creators><titles>
            <title>Design of embedded electromechanical power hinge mini actuators for electric aircraft concept</title></titles>
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	    <date dateType="Created">Sun 1 Oct 2017</date>
	    <date dateType="Updated">Sun 1 Oct 2017</date>
            <date dateType="Submitted">Sat 17 Feb 2018</date>
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Design of embedded electromechanical power hinge mini actuators for electric aircraft concept. Samsonovich S.L (1),Ogoltsov I.I. (2), Stepanov V.S. (3), Rozhnin N.B. (4) Krylov N.V (5) Makarin M.A. (6) 1: D.Sc,professor, Moscow, Volokolamskoye highway 4, 2: PhD,associate professor 3: PhD, 4: Senior Researcher PhD, 5: postgraduate student,, 6: postgraduate student, Abstract This report focuses on the results of the development of electromechanical power hinge minidrives and methods of their construction which allow embedding. The report examines the concept of electric aircraft in terms of the drive systems. The main features of electric power supply of aircraft drive systems are the ability to replace hydraulic lines by electric mains as well as installation of electromechanical or electro-hydrostatic actuators on the aircraft. Thus electromechanical or electro-hydrostatic drives can be used to control aerodynamics surfaces such as ailerons, elevating rudders, flaps and other. Often, it is necessary to use linear actuators and levers to provide the required torque. Locating drives and levers in a thin wing is problematic and requires additional fairings that degrade aerodynamics. Therefore, development of embedded power hinge actuators is a topical task. Introduction In Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) there have been developed rotational and linear actuators that fit into the electric aircraft concept. Kinematics of the rotary motion actuator is shown in figure 1 [1]. The actuator’s consists of a high speed electromotor and a high ratio gear to provide big torques in small dimensions. It is advisable to use the multi-stage transmission as it makes it possible to vary and optimize the size of the output link to the required dimensions. Fig. 1: Rotary motion power mini actuator. The characteristics of the rotary motion power mini actuator are shown in table 1. Table 1: Characteristics of the rotary motion mini actuator The linear motion power mini actuator is shown in figure 2 [2]. It consists of a magnetic clutch to couple shafts and a ball screw output gear. Locating the balls in the retainer excludes the possibility of closed recirculating ball tracks and thereby it allows to avoid transmission paths jamming and the balls abrasion and to prevent the balls from crumpling. Fig.2 Linear motion power miniactuator. Table 2: Characteristics of the linear motion mini actuator Optimization of dimensions The research [3] shows that wave gears with rolling elements have the best dimensions and weight. The graphs in figure 3 show comparative analysis of various gear designs. Also it has been identified that loaded wave transmission can have the minimal diameter which depends on load torque, gear ratio, number of rows of rolling elements and mechanical properties of the materials such as strength and hardness. Fig. 3: Comparative analysis of various gear designs. The following abbreviations are used in figure 3: cg - cylindrical gear, P1-P4 - planetary gears, opg - orbital planetary gear, bsg - ball-screw gear, wgwre - wave gear with rolling elements, wg - wave gear The total volume of the engine with manual transmission or cylindrical planetary gear increases together with gear ratio. Thus there are optimum values of gear ratios at which this volume is minimal. The largest gear ratio for a given torque can be realized in wave transmission with rolling elements due to a larger diameter and a small length, or due to a large length and small diameter. Formulas 1 and 2 show the necessary optimality condition for calculating of the intermediate stage of mechanical gear. = (1) = (2) Where qint- intermediate gear ratio, qopt- optimal gear ratio, q∑- total gear ratio, ML - total load torque, Mint - intermediate gear torque. Hinge actuators may be used as support bearings Wave transmission includes 3 main elements inside, which are a waveformer, a separator and a circular spline. The separator can be the output link with the fixed circular spline, and the circular spline can be the output link when the separator is fixed. In this case the arrangement of machines can be different, and it is not necessary to center the circular spline, because it is based on bearing balls or rollers arranged evenly around the perimeter. Thus wave transmission may be the bearing itself [4] and it allows to develop embedded hinge actuators and use them as support bearings for the object. Fig. 4: Cross-sectional view of the wave transmission with rolling elements. Conclusion New embedded mini-hinge actuators based on wave gear with intermediate rolling elements developed in Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) make it possible to approach the concept of electric aircraft. A new approach to developing mini-hinge drives makes it possible to embed the drive directly into the control object. It allows to reduce dimensions, to lower weight, to avoid extra fairings, to refuse hydraulic lines and to lower maintenance costs. References. 1 Dovgalenok V.M. et al., Patent RU 2519612 C2, Loop-shape power mini drive. Date of publication 20.06.14 bull.№17 2 Borisov M.V. et al., Patent RU 2526366 C2 Electromechanical minidrive of translational action. Date of publication 20.08.2014 bull № 23 3 Levin A.V., Prospects and problems of developing electromechanical power minidrives for a new generation of flying vehicles. Aviation industry, 2013 vol.#3 pp.#8-13. 4 Samsonovich S.L. et al, Comprehensive approach to the design of drive systems for the smallest dimensions and weight, XII All-Russian Conference on Control, Moscow, Institute of Control Sciences, 2014 pp#7166-7170.