Automatic generation of windings for permanent magnet synchronous machines dedicated to embedded systems

03/02/2015
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Automatic generation of windings for permanent magnet synchronous machines dedicated to embedded systems

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application/pdf Automatic generation of windings for permanent magnet synchronous machines dedicated to embedded systems D. Jarrot, Y. Lefevre, C. Henaux
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Automatic generation of windings for permanent magnet synchronous machines dedicated to embedded systems

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Automatic generation of windings for permanent magnet synchronous machines dedicated to embedded systems D. Jarrot (1-2), Y. Lefevre (1), C. Henaux (1), (1) Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’Energie (LAPLACE), University of Toulouse, CNRS, 31000 Toulouse, France, {jarrot,lefevre,henaux}@laplace.univ-tlse.fr (2) Zodiac Aerospace, ZACS, 89000 Auxerre, France, damien.jarrot@zodiacaerospace.com Abstract This paper deals with the design of windings in electrical machines. One of the major issues is to develop a general analytical method which can generate automatically balanced winding solutions according to designers’ criteria and to qualify them by computing the winding factor, magnetomotive force harmonic content and self and mutual linkage inductances. This method implemented into a tool will permit to design electrical machine characterized by linkage and mutual inductances compatible with the future generation of multilevel and high frequency converter. The capabilities of the method, its basic principles, some examples and validations with Finite Elements Analyses (FEA) will be presented. Introduction Even if winding configurations have been widely studied, most of them are limited on specific winding configurations. In the one hand, many studies compare fractional slot winding configurations from a limited set of available configurations and some of them are focusing on tooth winding and suggesting a generic approach to optimize the winding factor. Thus it appears interesting to have method able to generate automatically all available winding configurations in order to choose that one which satisfies not only the winding factor criteria but also the inductance parameters for instance. In the proposed work a particular attention has been paid to develop a general analytical approach for generating automatically and characterizing most kinds of balanced windings. This method provides the main relevant winding data efficiently and rapidly. Moreover combined with an analytical electromagnetic model of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), a global tool able to generate automatically and to characterize all available winding configurations and to perform electromagnetic performances of the PMSM was developed and presented [1]. Thanks to this tool we are able to determine and satisfy electromagnetic torque, ripple torque level and inductance parameters expected to a direct coupling of the PMSM with a specific inverter. This key point is relatively interesting for the embedded system including reconfigurable parallel interleaved inverter [2]. The main objective of this work is to present the method intended to help the designer of PMSM at the pre-design stage. Only three parameters have to be specified for the generation of winding configurations: the numbers of slots, pole pairs and phases. Then the set of available structures which authorizes balanced windings and defines elementary coil configurations corresponding to a distribution of conductors per phase is defined. By this way, it is possible to obtain particular winding configurations depending on designer's criteria choices such as a simple or multi- layer, a full or fractional pitch, a full or fractional slot winding type. From the chosen winding configurations and the analytical expressions of the corresponding distribution function of conductors, the computation of the winding factor, the harmonic content of the magnetomotive force (MMF) and the self and mutual linking inductances are performed. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first one the winding generation principle is presented. Then the distribution functions of conductors allowing to model any balanced winding solutions is detailed. The last section illustrates several examples and the assessment of some results obtained with FEA. Winding design and generation The main issue of this part is to generate the most types of balanced windings according to the expected machine structure and user criteria choices. Recently several researchers have paid attention to this subject [3], [4]. The algorithm of winding design developed is based on winding conception rules of balanced multi-phase windings. According to criteria designer the algorithm provides the set of available structures which authorize balanced windings. Then the algorithm defines and combines elementary coil sides and generates automatically a set of winding solutions expressed under matrix formalism. From a machine structure the torque ripple periodicity is determined. From a particular winding solution, a winding sequence corresponding to a phase is extracted and the global winding factor is simply and rapidly determined. Distribution functions of conductors The stator winding can be represented by a distribution function of conductors defined for each phase in function of the angular position θ along the stator. From the distribution functions, the corresponding winding functions which correspond to the airgap MMF waveform when only one phase is fed by a unit positive current can thus be defined. Fig. 1 : Distribution functions of conductors for one phase for two examples Finally from the winding functions theory, a known method which permits to obtain quickly the airgap MMF distribution [5], MMF harmonic content and analytical estimation of inductances of phases taking into account the slot opening can also be performed. Fig. 2 : Normalized winding functions with Ns=1the number of turns/coil for one phase for two examples Examples Several examples of windings are used to present the capabilities of the method to generate and characterize different kind of balanced windings. For the assessment of inductance results, comparisons with FEA are done. Conclusion A method intended to help designers at the pre- design stage has been presented. From only few parameters, the method allows to generate automatically and characterize rapidly most of relevant balanced winding solutions by providing main information. The method allows rapid and efficient computations. Computations take only few minutes and mean errors between inductance parameters calculated and FEA results are less than 7%. References [1] D. Jarrot, Y. Lefevre, and C. Henaux, « A Tool to Help to Design Windings of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines », in International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM14), Sept 2014. [2] D. M. A. Avila, B. Cougo, T. Meynard, G. Gateau, and M. A. S. Mendes, « Reconfigurable parallel interleaved three-phase inverter for aeronautical applications », 2012, p. 1-6. [3] A. O. Di Tommaso, F. Genduso, and R. Miceli, « A software for the evaluation of winding factor harmonic distribution in high efficiency electrical motors and generators », in 8th International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), 2013, p.1-6. [4] E. Fornasiero, L. Alberti, N. Bianchi, and S. Bolognani, « Considerations on Selecting Fractional- Slot Nonoverlapped Coil Windings », IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 49, n o 3, p. 1316‑ 1324, May 2013. [5] F. Scuiller, E. Semail, and J.-F. Charpentier, « General modeling of the windings for multi-phase ac machines », Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 50, n o 3, p. 31102, May 2010.