Impact of More Electrical Aircraft on Electrical Wiring Interconnection System

03/02/2015
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Impact of More Electrical Aircraft on Electrical Wiring Interconnection System

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application/pdf Impact of More Electrical Aircraft on Electrical Wiring Interconnection System Ludovic Ybanez, Michel Dunand
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Impact of More Electrical Aircraft on Electrical Wiring Interconnection System

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Impact of More Electrical Aircraft on Electrical Wiring Interconnection System Ludovic Ybanez (1), Michel Dunand (2) 1: LPS Safran group, Ludovic.ybanez@safran-engineering.com 2: LPS Safran group, michel.dunand@safran-engineering.com Abstract Electrical Wiring Interconnection System (EWIS), that already represents several tons and high complexity on a modern aircraft, will be dramatically impacted by the increase in embedded electrical power, the generalization of power electronics and the multiplication of electrical loads linked to the More Electrical Aircraft (MEA). These changes generate new constraints on EWIS linked to increasing voltage and frequency as well as the emergence of new types of voltage/current waves, a rise in complexity related to the number of electrical connections, new installation rules and an increase in criticality of electrical links worsened by the generalization of composite materials. In order to master weight, cost and safety of MEA EWIS, it is necessary to master the complex physical mechanisms involved (Partial discharges, Arcs, ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC), electrical resonance, thermal…), to develop new methods, tools and design guides for designers, new technologies and materials for components, new systems of protection and health monitoring. Introduction: The expected evolution towards the more electric transport vehicles to improve maintenance, availability, to reduce energy and raw material consumption, creates new constraints on wired networks in the permanent context of weight and cost saving. For aeronautics, recent significant accidents have caused a change in the regulation and have introduced the concept of Electrical Wiring Interconnection System (EWIS) [1] defining new certification constraints and justifications. More Electrical Aircraft (MEA) will lead to an increase in the electrical power to transport, to an increase of number of distribution / generation points implying a rise of electrical connections number, of EWIS criticality, complexity, and difficulty to install and associated risks (arcs, EMC, heating…). It will also consider a probable more Composite environment. To reduce the Joule losses and minimize weight, airframe manufacturers are developing new power networks with increased voltage: 230Vac and/or ± 270 Vdc showing new physical constraints (Partial discharges, Arcs, EMC…). In order to master weight, cost and safety of MEA EWIS, which already represents several tons and high complexity on a modern aircraft, it is necessary to master these complex physical mechanisms, to develop new methods, tools and design guides, new technologies and materials for components, new systems of protection and health monitoring. Physical mechanisms involved The HVDC, HVAC or PWM introduction and the multiplication of static and/or electromechanical converters lead to the emergence or the escalation of the following physical phenomena: • Partial discharges [2] especially in unpressurized areas can induce premature aging of insulation [3] and even lead to the development of electrical arc. The current answer is to increase the thickness of the insulation thereby reducing the expected weight gain. • Arcs’ changing of nature and of impacts on cable and on their environment [4] force to reconsider our methods of installation, protection, and the cable technology. • The skin effects due to the increase in frequencies and harmonic richness of signals leading to new studies of cables and conductors. • The EMC -impacted by the increase in the number and level of "polluters"- results in an increase of the power electronics filter and shielding weight, as well as in a change of segregation rules and routing. • The impedance and the length of harnesses may lead to heavier filters and may cause overvoltage. • The thermo-electric effects generate overweight if they are not well mastered. New methods, tools and design guides MEA requires the development and integration of new functionalities in our design tools: • Global trade-off taking into account the EWIS constraints (voltage, voltage drop, location of the main distribution centers, loads, technology ...) in the global architecture to decrease EWIS weight up to 40% compared to a forward centralized architecture. • Thermoelectric, fundamental key of an optimized EWIS, allowing better sizing of the conductor sections taking into account global constraints and technology for a considerable decrease of EWIS weight. • EMC and lightning to evaluate the induced coupling to optimize cable networks routing, technology and protection. • Simulation and optimization methods of ALEEN [6] to allow sizing, calculate its robustness to failures and reduce redundancies. • Simulation and design support to justify specifically the new High Voltage link rules taking into account Partial Discharges (PD), EMC constraints and arc risks. • Safety Analysis to meet EWIS regulations. Finally, it is also necessary to work on new qualification criteria and standards. New technologies and materials for components To master these new constraints, continue to reduce the weight and control the network reliability, it is necessary to develop new components and materials for connectors and cables: • Sheaths and Insulators: consider the PD, mechanical protection, effects of arcs. • Conductors: improving the resistivity to decrease the mass of power cables which represents up to 70% of the EWIS weight of a modern aircraft. Develop technology if the frequencies or harmonics generate Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) skin effects. • Shields: developing lighter specified protections, hybrid metal / composite. • Functionalized cables with specified RLCG parameters for a contribution in power electronics filters weight reduction [5], in lower dv / dt at the motor terminals, in the stabilization of HVDC networks. EWIS « Systems » Scientific advances on the detection and fault location (network interruption, loss of insulation, arc and PD detection) bring solutions for EWIS and ALEEN health monitoring, prediction of defects for an easier maintenance and enhanced network safety. The use of active protection systems cables and the latest scientific advances enable the introduction of new cable protection laws taking into account thermal and innovative arc protection. Finally, the recent work done in the field shows that it becomes feasible to transmit data with wireless, PLC technology on an aircraft, hence reduce the number of cables, EWIS complexity, cost and increase its modularity. Conclusion The increase in the embedded power will undoubtedly increase the need to master weight, safety and cost of the couple EWIS / current return of a MEA. The work achieved so far highlights the complexity of phenomena and issues that were previously of second order and reinforces the need to work for their better understanding. The ultimate goal is to target a gain of several dozens of % of the tons that represent the EWIS and ALEEN, to minimize development costs / maintenance, complexity, ensure high safety by having a shared overall approach and taking into account from the earliest stages of trade-off the constraints of electrical energy transmission and distribution. References [1] subpart H CS25 [2] Flavien KOLIATENE : « Contribution à l’étude des DP dans le système de l’avionique» Thèse soutenue en janvier 2009 [3] Elyse SILI : « étude de caractérisation des DP et du vieillissement du polyimide en environnement aéronautique» Thèse soutenue en décembre 2012 [4] Hadi ELBAYDA : « Etude du transfert d’énergie entre un arc de court-circuit et son environnement :applicationàl’«ArcTracking»» [5] C. Jullien, M. Dunand, J. Genoulaz : « DEVELOPEMENT DE HARNAIS DE CABLE EN VUE DE L’OPTIMISATION CEM D’UNE CHAINE DE CONVERSION DE PUISSANCE POUR L’AERONAUTIQUE » 17ème Colloque International et Exposition sur la Compatibilité ÉlectroMagnétique (CEM 2014) [6] A.Dieudonné, M.Dunand, M.Bandinelli, A.Mori, G.Antonini : « VALIDATION D’UN OUTIL DE MODELISATION POUR LES RESEAUX DE RETOUR DE COURANT » 17ème Colloque International et Exposition sur la Compatibilité ÉlectroMagnétique (CEM 2014).