Electric taxiing technology – smart solution to decrease negative environmental effect of aircraft

03/02/2015
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Electric taxiing technology – smart solution to decrease negative environmental effect of aircraft

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application/pdf Electric taxiing technology – smart solution to decrease negative environmental effect of aircraft M.Pogosyan, S. Aldoshin, V. Kuzyuk, V.A. Kargopoltsev, V. ukhanov, A. Kargopoltsev
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Electric taxiing technology – smart solution to decrease negative environmental effect of aircraft

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Electric taxiing technology – smart solution to decrease negative environmental effect of aircraft M.Pogosyan (1), S.Aldoshin (2), V.Kuzyuk (3), V.Kargopoltsev (4), V.Sukhanov (5), A.Kargopoltsev (6) 1: JSC United Aircraft Corporation, Ulansky side-street, bld.1, 22 Moscow 101000, Russia, topoffice @uacrussia.ru 2: Russian academy of sciences, smaldoshin@presidium.ras.ru 3: JSC “Aviation equipment”, concern@avia- eguipment.ru 4: JSC United Aircraft Corporation, v.kargopoltsev@uacrussia.ru 5: FSUE Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, flight15@tsagi.ru 6: FSUE Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, flight15@tsagi.ru Abstract The paper presents main areas of work for development of more electrical aircraft concept in Russia in the case of electric taxiing system development for SSJ-100 aircraft. The results of simulation of SSJ-100 aircraft with electric taxiing system installed in Sheremetyevo airport with real traffic scenarios are presented. Preliminary requirements to characteristics of electric taxiing system are formulated and candidate technologies for development of such system are considered. An interest to electric taxiing system development in Russia, Europe and USA makes it necessary to establish cooperation in this area especially for development of certification procedures and procedures of usage of aircraft with electric taxiing system in airports to maximize the benefits of such systems. Introduction Active developments of the more electrical aircraft (MEA) concept define a variety of directions for aircraft electrification and appropriate scientific and technological challenges. Ongoing programs for technologies development and evolution of requirements to future aircraft show the aircraft ecological characteristics improvement becomes of highest priority, including such aspects as decreasing of noise level and emission. The results of conducted research show the effective solution of this problem within the MEA concept for the on-ground part of aircraft flight cycle. Current situation Ecological characteristics improvement for ground movement is of primary interest for short- and mid- range aircraft for which the average flight time is about 2-3 hours and 20-30 minutes of taxiing results in 10-15% of total engine working time. Moreover, the efficiency of main engines for aircraft taxiing is relatively low and the fuel is burning even at breaking and stops (as the engine always works on the idle regime). In addition, the noise of aircraft engines is the main contributor to the overall noise level of the airport. Use of the main engines for taxiing results in formation of areas in an airport with pollution level that exceeds safe level. As an example, the emission diagram [1] for one of the biggest European hubs could be mentioned with a number of areas around gates, taxiways and runways where emission level exceeds the safe level recommended by European Commission directive. Therefore, the complex of problems that arises if main engines are used for taxiing makes it necessary the development of technologies that will raise the efficiency of taxiing in terms of fuel consumption, emission and noise. At present time, the electric taxiing systems are independently developing by four companies including one from Russian Federation. Russian main gear electric drive developed by wide consortium of aviation companies (integrator – holding company “Aviation equipment”) with participation of “United Aircraft Corporation”, R&D centres (Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, State Institute of Civil Aviation, institutes of Russian Academy of Science and number of other companies). Development of electric taxiing system for SSJ- 100 aircraft Multidisciplinary nature of technologies implemented in main gear electric drive makes it necessary the use of integrated multidisciplinary simulation platform with detailed models of main electric drive sub-systems, aircraft dynamics, precise airport digital model with real traffic simulation and physical characteristics of taxiways and runway surfaces. Figure 1 Russian main gear electric drive development for SSJ-100 aircraft (Fig 1) includes consideration of a variety of advanced technologies such as high- efficiency on-board energy generation systems based on new principles, superconductivity, electric motors with rare earth elements. The results of the research allow formulating rational requirements to main gear electric drive and provide guideline for its design. In particular, in order to formulate rational requirements for main gear electric drive extensive mathematical and full-size simulations were conducted with the use of the following components (Fig.2): - Detailed model of SSJ-100 aircraft with main gear electric drive model; - TsAGI’s flight simulator with prototype of main gear electric drive control system (Fig. 3); - Digital model of Sheremetyevo airport (Moscow); - Real traffic load scenarios. Figure 2 Figure 3 Simulations of aircraft taxiing in Sheremetyevo airport with the use of the flight simulator were conducted with participation of leading test pilots from State Institute of Civil Aviation. The results of conducted research show that for Sheremetyevo airport the use of main gear electric drive on SSJ-100 aircraft allows to dramatically decrease taxiing time with working main engines up to the time required for engines warm up and cooling (Fig 4). Figure 4 Use of electric taxiing system provide sufficient fuel savings and improve overall ecological characteristics of aircraft. Preliminary estimations show that for short- midrange aircraft the use of electric taxiing system could provide airline with additional profit up to 2$ per passenger for one flight cycle. It is necessary to mention that conducted researches include estimation of required energy resources, strength analysis, temperature balance, main gear stability. This provided complex solution for main gear electric drive design. Conclusions The results of researches show that implementation of electric taxiing is a promising way to improve ecological situation in airports both for emission and noise decrease. An interest for electric taxiing system development in Russia, Europe and USA makes it necessary to establish the cooperation in this area especially for development of certification procedures and procedures of usage of aircraft with electric taxiing system in airports to maximize the benefits of such systems. References 1 M. E. J. Stettler et al, Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part I: Emissions. Atmospheric Environment 45 (31), 2012