High Power Density 45kW SiC Converter Design and Performances

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High Power Density 45kW SiC Converter Design and Performances


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High Power Density 45kW SiC Converter Design and Performances DHEILLY Nicolas, SIMON Jean-Jacques Labinal Power Systems, Power Division, Rond Point René Ravaud – BP 42, 77551 Moissy Cramayel Cedex – France, nicolas.dheilly@labinal-power.com Abstract Power Electronic Converter for More Electric Aircraft will benefit of the improvement of power transistors and diodes underway; considering an HVDC network, use of new wide bandgap semiconductors will enable weight saving by increasing the power density at the converter level, and by improving the converter efficiency at the cooling system level. Such semiconductors have the ability to share easily their current when connected in parallel and also to sustain high junction temperature. These features will allow another innovative step that consist in designing scalable power modules to address different kinds of power loads to be driven and to feed some dedicated areas of the aircraft. To quantify the reachable benefits, a 45 kW SiC converter has been designed and tested. Introduction The paper shows the design and test result of a 45kW SiC high power density generic converter intended to drive aeronautical generic loads, located in unpressurized area. The design assumptions have been validated by the measurement performed on an integrated 9kW/kg demonstrator, paving the way for a further step in power density beyond 12kW/kg. The cooling management is also simplified, owing to the reduced thermal losses obtained by the use of SiC transistors and diodes devices Generic Converter Design The Converter breakdown and Control interface is given in Fig 1 The converter is designed for AC/DC, DC/DC and DC/AC conversions at voltages up to 800VDC. AC/DC mode allows to generate +/-270V DC using a boost rectifier PFC mode, from a 115V tri source. DC/DC mode allows converting a low voltage provided by a battery to a higher voltage typically +/- 135V for a motor starter if several such converters are paralleled. In these first modes, the energy is flowing in the reverse direction inside the converter. In the following mode, the energy is flowing in the forward direction. DC/AC mode allows to provide a 115V-400Hz tri network from a +/-270V DC source, or to feed electrical drives. Featuring a modular design, for easy rack mounting in electrical cabinets, this line-replaceable unit (LRU) can operate in individual and parallel mode to control very high-power loads. Each mode is selected by loading the related S/W in the control board of the generic converter unit. The output power available is 45 kW continuous (150 A peak) per converter unit. A DC filter [4] is integrated to comply with EMC DO160 requirements, and the connection towards the load are achieved through either external output filters (existing when sharing the load current between several inverters working in parallel) or shielded cables. (Fig 3-4) Fig. 1: Generic Converter Breakdown Multichip Power Module A dedicated Multichip Power Module (MCPM) has been designed in order to integrate the several dies per switch needed for the intended power level, the resistive phase current and temperature sensors. The dies are interconnected through an internal PCB on which the driver connector is mounted. The dies location on the substrate is optimized for balancing the power and control leads in each switch, while spreading the dies on the overall area for saving temperature margin. The MCPM baseplate is in direct contact with the external cold plate through a Transfer Interface Material. Fig.2: MCPM with interconnecting PCB (left), with lid (right). 150x99x27mm - 430g. Control Board The control board is built up with a generic controller that elaborates the actuator position law, the motor speed control law, the motor current law, acquiring the resolver and current sensors, and transmitting data with the external world through different links (Arinc, RS, AFDX …) This controller is able to drive two separate actuators and is designed according the DO254 and DO178 aeronautical standards. It supports the above described working modes and its current control mode allows sharing the power between several paralleled inverters. Fig.3 Generic Digital Core Module Test results The power loss measurements have been performed using a liquid cooling cold plate, the temperature of the liquid regulated at 70°C by a chiller recirculator system. For a 540V input 70 Arms triphase output drive, 15 kHz PWM switching, the measured power losses at the power module level are under: - 500W, the cooling interface temperature being kept at 90°C max. - 600W, the cooling interface temperature being kept at 105°C max. This level is less than one half compared to Silicon solution. Switching losses are only 1/4th the total losses at 150°C junction temperature (15kHz PWM switching) owing to the use of a dedicated multichip power module designed for minimizing the power and gate control signal loops impedances and for providing an efficient thermal transfer. Varying the liquid regulated temperature as well as the PWM switching frequency (from 10 to 30 kHz) allowed to find the share between the conductive and switching loss over the temperature range , as shown in fig 4. Fig. 4: Measured power losses versus junction temperature (15 kHz PWM switching) Power Density Improvement The main improvements are expected in the following fields: New film technology will allow shrinking the DC filter capacitor; SiC semiconductor current density is ever increasing; further work is undertaken in the frame of the GENOME project, aiming at integrating the driver board into the power module; this will lead to lighten the power converter and alleviate its cooling requirement. The power density will be higher than 12KW/kg. Efficiency Improvement Up to date Mosfet SiC dies have been tested recently in the generic converter, and power loss measured, showing a further reduction in dissipated power. For a 540V input 70 Arms triphase output drive, 15 kHz PWM switching, the cooling interface temperature being kept at 90°C max the power loss is under 400W for the whole converter. Conclusion The 45 kW SiC converter design and test results show the benefits provided by the wide bandgap semiconductors: a 12 kW per kg power density is now achievable , with a simplified thermal management due to improved power efficiency up to 99% for drive application. Fig. 5: Generic converter inside showing the control board (front side) and the DC filter (backside) 337x184x78 mm - 4,8kg References 1 J.A. Rosero, J.A. Ortega, E. Aldabas, L. Romeral: Moving towards a more electric aircraft, IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine , March 2007 2 R. De Maglie, G. Osvald, A. Mashaly, S. Liebig, J. Engstler, A. Engler: Development of a mid-power core (35 kW) dedicated to inverters for aerospace applications, 6 th International Conference on Integrated Power Electronics Systems CIPS, Proceedings, Nuremberg Germany, March 2010 Fig. 6: Showroom converter with carbon fiber cover 3 Philippo Digiovanni, ST Microelectronics: SiC Power Mosfets reshape energy conversion, International SiC Power Electronics Application Workshop , June 2013 4 Nicolas Delalandre, Alain Guerber, Jacques Salat et Jean-Jacques Simon, Composant Electronique de Puissance Comportant un Support de Drainage Thermique, Patent FR 1158672, 2011