Electrification and Intellectualization. The Two Main Aircraft Power Systems Evolution Trends

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Electrification and Intellectualization.  The Two Main Aircraft Power Systems Evolution Trends


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Electrification and Intellectualization. The Two Main Aircraft Power Systems Evolution Trends Zybin E.Yu., Kosyanchuk V.V., Selvesyuk N.I. State Research Institute of Aviation Systems (GosNIIAS) 7, Victorenko str., Moscow, Russia, eyzybin@2100.gosniias.ru Abstract The basic trends in aircraft power systems evolution – electrification and intellectualization, are analyzed. The technological and algorithmic foundations of these trends are outlined. The hierarchy of future aircraft power system management levels is shown. The specific functional properties of the intelligent and traditional aircraft power systems are compared. The basic problems of power and information technology integration are formulated. The power and information architectures of future aircraft power system are designed for unified management of power and information flows. The final goal of electrification and intellectualization is an “all-electrical all-intelligent” aircraft power system, which forms the basis of future energy organism. Introduction Significant progress in the development of electrical and information technology has predetermined two main trends in the development of perspective aircraft power system – electrification and intellectualization of its systems and components. These processes should lead to the complete integration of power and information systems, the optimal use of energy resources, reducing the number energy conversion levels, significantly expanding the functional properties of future aircraft power system. Electrification Modern aircraft power systems use the following main forms of energy - mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, thermal and electrical. Electrification is a process of penetration and propagation of electrical energy by reducing or eliminating the use of other forms of energy, implementation of new and modernization of existing electrical devices. The main current directions of future aircraft components and systems electrification are [1-3]: − electrification of hydraulic systems: o electrification of actuators (electro-hydrostatic, electro-mechanical); o electrification of wheel brakes; − electrification of pneumatic systems: o electrification of anti-icing systems (electro- thermal, electro-impulse, electro-mechanical); o electrification of thermoregulation systems (electric environmental control system, solid- state thermal engines); − electrification of power plants: o electric starting; o electric ignition; o elimination of constant speed drive; o elimination of drives of hydraulic and fuels pumps; o elimination of air bleed; o integration of electric starter into generator; o integration of generator into power plant; o integration of electric engine into power plant; o implementation of all-electric power plant; − electrification of taxi systems; − implementation of novel electrical devices: o electric energy generators (microturbines, fuel and semi-fuel cells, thermoelectric, magneto- elastic, biochemical elements etc.); o electric energy storages (maintenance-free batteries, energy-storage electric capacitors, supercapacitors etc.); o electric energy consumers (piezoelectric, magnetostrictive actuators, nanoactuators, nanomachines, sensor networks, etc.). The only electrical power system will remain on aircraft board as a result of the electrification. This process will affect all its elements, will lead to an increase in its power and capacity, as well as the introduction of a large number of distributed energy resources. This complication of power system will lead to an inevitable decrease in its observability, controllability, stability, reliability and efficiency. However, a simple upgrade of aircraft electrical equipment according to the extensive concept based on the uprating of generation facilities and the improvement of properties of individual elements of the power system is constrained by serious technological and algorithmic limitations. Account of all future associated factors and risks requires a revision of the traditional approaches and to develop a new concept for the development of intelligent (smart) aircraft power system. Intellectualization Intellectualization has two main directions: the introduction of advanced information technologies to provide complete observability and controllability of the aircraft power system and the integration of its elements into a single software and hardware complex that supports all power system functions for the organization of optimal control under all modes of operation. The power and information electronics are the technological foundations of intelligent aircraft power system. The state of modern electronics art fully covers all the needs in the intellectualization of the aircraft power system. Power electronics are used to control the generation, conversion, accumulation, distribution and consumption of electricity. The semiconductors elements (diodes, thyristors, transistors), components (logic, functional, reinforcing temporary, special) and devices (current transformers, voltage and frequency, non-contact switching devices, control of reactive power and voltage control device parameters network etc.) form the basis of power electronics. Aircraft information electronics (avionics) is intended for the generation, processing, transmission, storage and use of information. Perspective avionics will have distributed integrated modular architecture (DIMA or IMA2G). This principle of the information system implementation will create a power system with an open fault tolerant functionally-oriented network architecture using a common computing environment (platform). In this case the aircraft power system functions will be realized by the software applications that share common computing and information resources. An important feature of this architecture will be the absence of informational hard links between measurement/control channels and computing facilities. This will enable dynamic structure reconfiguration of aircraft power system with the corresponding redistribution of energy and information resources for the optimal performance of each its function. Therefore, each arising structure will be formed only during execution of a given function. Thus, the overall configuration of the computing environment will be dynamically adjusted during the operation of the power system. Algorithmic foundations of the intelligent aircraft power systems are formed by management techniques based on artificial intelligence. In this case, the traditional algorithms for electric energy distribution control are supplemented by algorithms of dynamic network reconfiguration, generation, regeneration, transformation, accumulation and consumption of electricity control. The hierarchy of the control levels of intelligent aircraft power systems is shown in Figure 1. 5. Intelligent control (goal setting) 4. Adaptive control (self-organization) 3. Robust control (uncertainty account) 2. Position control (closed loop) 1. Program control (open loop) Levels Fig. 1: Control levels hierarchy As a result, the process of intellectualization will lead to the emergence of fundamentally new functional properties of intelligent aircraft power system, a comparison of which is given in Table 1. Table 1: Intelligent and traditional power system functional properties comparison Note that only technologies and algorithms are not enough to build real intelligent power systems. An important feature of these systems is the level of integration of its information and electrical parts. Integration To implement an effective integration it is necessary to ensure compatibility (interoperability) of all hardware and software (standards, protocols, interfaces). Interoperability is the capability of two or more systems, devices, applications, or components to externally exchange and readily use information securely and effectively [4]. To ensure the interoperability it is necessary to develop architectures, describing aircraft power system structure from unified electrical and information flows management point of view. Interrelation of such architectures and functions of power system is shown in Figure 2. Communication architecture Control functions Interoperability architecture Information architecture Electric architecture Monitoring functions Protection functions . functions … Fig. 3: Architectures and functions interrelation Interoperability architecture, shown in Figure 3, forms a universal basis for the integration of energy and information parts of intelligent aircraft power system. It contains subsystems that are common to all the tasks of energy and information flows management. CONSUMPTION GENERATION POWER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Informational flows Electrical flows PRIMARY GRID SECONDARY GRID Fig. 2: Intelligent aircraft power system interoperability architecture The aircraft power system interoperability architecture subsystems are briefly described in Table 2. Table 3: Intelligent power system domains Intelligent aircraft power system electrical and information architectures designed for management of electrical and information flows between the domains and entities are shown in Figures 4, 5. Fig. 4: Intelligent aircraft power system electrical architecture Fig. 6: Intelligent aircraft power system information architecture Electrical architecture entities are the electrical and electro-information power system devices controlled by the relevant management systems through the interfaces (PS). Information architecture entities are the functions implemented in software using relevant data flows (IT). These architectures forms the basis for the effective integration of aircraft power system electrical and informational parts to ensure the ability to exchange information (energy) and to use the information (energy) obtained as a result of such exchange. Conclusions Aircraft power system electrification and intellectualization processes are implemented consistently, passing through traditional, more electric (more intelligent) and all-electric (all-intelligent) stages. Construction of "all-electric all-intelligent" power systems will lead to the creation of fundamentally new energy concept of perspective aircraft - integrated energoinformational system or energy organism, "skeleton" of which are formed by electrical devices, "muscles" are presented by power electronics, and "intelligence" is organized by information electronics and intelligent algorithms. References 1 Moir I., Aircraft Systems: Mechanical, electrical, and avionics subsystems integration, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2008. 2 Moir I. et al, Civil Avionics Systems, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2013. 3 Agarwal Ramesh K. (Ed.), Recent Advances in Aircraft Technology, InTech Publisher, 2012. 4 IEEE 2030, IEEE Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and In- formation Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS), End-Use Applications, and Loads, IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21, 2011.