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Advanced Magnetic Technologies for MEA

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application/pdf Advanced Embedded Data Platforms for Distributed Power Management Jacques Gatard
application/pdf Advanced Magnetic Technologies for MEA V.A. Kargopoltsev, M.D. Kozlov, A.M. Tishin

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Advanced Magnetic Technologies for MEA V.A. Kargopoltsev (1), M.D. Kozlov (2) and A.M. Tishin (3,4) 1 : JSC United Aircraft Corporation, Ulansky side-st., bld. 1, 22, Moscow, 101000, Russia 2 : JSC Aviaagregat, Zavodskoe road 55, Samara, 443009, Russia, 3 : Physics Department of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia 4: LLC FMT, AMT&C Group, Promyshlennay 4, c. Troitsk, c. Moscow,142190, Russia, tishin@amtc.org Abstract Recent development of MEA programs in different countries demonstrated significant potential of this technology from both commercial and ecological points of view. The paper shortly considers our activity in directions of optimization of rare-earth (RE) permanent magnet based Halbach structures for magnetic gearbox and electric taxiing system as well as our results for wireless far-field charging and energy transmission systems. Results of electrical taxing machines modelling have demonstrated possibility of reaching the value of torque density as high as 68.7 kN/kg and possibility of future wire less charging for such machines. The results of digital modelling permit to hope on serious future reduction of mass of energy storage systems of aircrafts. Introduction First important steps in MEA area were made more than 30-40 years ago after invention of RE SmCo permanent magnets. 20-25 years ago the main task of this project was to reduce the utilization of hydraulic and pneumatic components in aircrafts, but this was limited, especially for military applications, due to availability of permanent magnets operating at temperatures up to 350 0 C. A lot of magnetic materials remaining for a long time under utilization in an aircraft (as an example, in electrical generators, actuators and in more special applications like magnetic tapes for black boxes and radio-absorbing coatings called «iron ball paint», contain microspheres of carbonyl iron or ferrite). From our perspective utilization of the following known and novel magnetic materials will be increased and/or find its application in MEA: sintered and bonded RE permanent magnets (high temperature NdFeB and SmCo types) ; soft magnetic materials (Fe-Co, non- orientead cold rolled and amorphsous steels, etc); magnetorheological fluids (MRF) etc. In this context it is important to note that Russian RE program with budget 4Bl$ until 2020 year will provide vital long- term non-depended resources source for MEA. As an example, the utilization volume of advanced soft magnetic materials will grow due to the increased number and power of electric motors, generators and components, utilizing this kind of materials and the need to protect passengers from electromagnetic radiation emitted by this equipment. As it is expected magnetic air conditioning system as one of most energy efficient technology will significantly increase the operation range of electrical vehicles. In this context, the consideration of applicability of this technology for MEA is desirable. One of possible innovative applications of permanent magnets is a determination of position of self-driving MEA on runway. Together with described below, we develop the following magnetic technologies which can be used in MEA: composit nanostructure providing special relation of values of dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability and its volume distribution for advanced light weight foam magnetic shielding [1], and magnetic refrigeration [2]. Magnetic clutch and gearbox Reduction of number of hydraulic and pneumatic components, energy saving, fire safety and fault tolerance improvement are inevitably leading to more extensive utilization of magnetic clutches and gears. First one allows for quick switching between different energy consumers, provides safety, depending on the situation and saves up to 40-50% energy [3]. Providing increased manageability by small currents and with extremely low power consumption, hybrid electromagnetic clutch was tested for row of vehicle applications including a safety-clutch to switch a torque in a bus [4]. We have developed a number of RE permanent magnet based and hybrid electromagnetic clutches utilizing MRF that can operate in the range from 1 to 6000 Nm and allow the controlled torque transmission control of motor, generator, brakes and other units in aircrafts. Fig.1 presents an example of two steps magnetic gear for 3.8 kNm Fig 1. Two steps magnetic gear Electrical taxing Recent investigation in this area has demonstrated significant progress in increasing torque to the mass value. Achieved torque density value 64.3kN/kg is indeed an excellent reference point for future work [5]. In the same time such matters as increasing of value of the specific continuous torque, dealing with high speeds during take-off and landing, optimization of the value of the switching frequency of the inverter still need to be paid future attention at. Most of Russian aircraft requires various value of torque and have various sizes of available envelopes. From this point of view use of module approach including a future optimization of permanent magnet system, slots configuration etc would benefit as from future increasing of specific continuous energy characteristic and for reduction of cost of production. Our aim is to create a raw of high efficient (up 96- 97%) air cooled electrical taxing systems applicable for Sukhoi Superjet 100, MC-21 etc. Five different designs of PMSM including direct drive (outer rotor) and gear coupled machines for both nose and main landing gears have been considered. Our special emphasis have been made on optimization of weight, complicity and cost of Halbach systems of the machines [6]. Electro-magnetic modeling and thermal analysis have shown that utilization of high temperature Sm2Co17 magnets with parameters Br>1.03Т и (BH)max >200 kJ/m 3 at 180 o C and optimization of Halbach structure allow to reach peak torque density value up to 68.7 kN/kg without increasing a cost of the machine. Wire-less Long-frequency (LF) electromagnetic filed cannot interfere with MEA electronics and has much less impact on health. Benefits of LF compared to high frequencies are their ability to penetrate dense media but up to now, it is only possible to work with very long antenna. Results [7] have shown a possibility to transmit waves in a frequency range down to 100 Hz by using an antenna which has size comparable with length of airplane. This opens a wide range of applications. In the case of „black-boxes“ adding a compact LF transmitter would extremely improve the search-speed of present sonar based solutions. While antenna located on the depth of 100m and operating with the pulse-mode radiating power of 100W/m 2 , digital modeling has demonstrated that it would be possible to detect a emitted signal about 335 mW/m 2 on the surface of the sea which is still easily detectable from air for ideal directivity D. D of a single radiator can go as high as 15 dB. We have shown that high directivity D and large Q- factor at low frequencies f of the E/M radiators allow efficient wireless transfer of energy. Bandwidth of BW~1/Q is irrelevant for power transfer. Large skin depth of ~λ/6~ 500 m can be buried underground. If operating current is at radiator I ~1 A, radiation resistance Rr~100 Ohm then roughly 20 radiators per length of aircraft along the landing path (see Fig.2) needed in order to provide up to 200 kW required for green taxing without any additional energy systems located aboard. If main lobe aperture of radiator is 20 deg then linear size of receiving antenna at 50 m should be about 2 x 50 tan (10 deg)~17 m for efficient harvesting of radiated energy (see Fig.3) [7]. Fig.2 Scheme of antenna locations Fig.3 Radiation pattern of a single loop type radiator. Conclusions A novel RE magnetic technologies undoubtedly play a vital role for future MEA. Our work involves the raw of advanced magnetic materials , allows us to create electrical taxing systems with peak torque density up 69 kN/kg and makes a first actual step to close to zero weight of energy storagy system aboard. References 1 A.M. Tishin, S.Halilov, 2013, US 8,378,877 2 A.M. Tishin, Y.I.Spichkin The magnetocaloric effect and its application, CRC Press, 2003, 479p 3 F. Bucchi et alii, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, 2013, Vol.23, pp. 62-74 4 M Jackel et all, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 412 (2013) 012051. 5 M. Galea et al, 2013 IEEE International, 2013, pp. 1066-1073. 6 D.B.Kopeliovich et al, 2012, Patent RU 2466491 7 A.M.Tishin and S.Halilov, 2013 , RU, UK and USA patnets are pending. 20 0