Progress in hybrid/electric transport aircraft design

01/02/2017
Publication MEA2017
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Progress in hybrid/electric transport aircraft design

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This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran PROGRESS IN HYBRID/ELECTRIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT DESIGN 02/02/2017 Keynote Session 4 Dr Askin T. Isikveren, Head Energy-Efficient Aircraft Architectures Dept of Energy and Propulsion, SAFRAN Tech This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran Top-Level Requirements: Flightpath 2050 / SRIA NASA Aeronautics Strategic Implementation Plan 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren2 EIS 2025 EIS 2035 EIS 2050 External Noise (dB) SRIA -10.0 -11.0 -15.0 ST3A* -6.0 -11.0 -16.0 LTO NOx Emissions SRIA -81% -84% -90% ST3A* -73% -77% -90% Fuel Consumption SRIA -49% -60% -75% ST3A* -45% -54% -80% All values quoted compared against year 2000 datum * Adjusted for EIS alignment with SRIA; algorithm used is TRL 5-6 + 5 years A320 NEO vs A320 CEO 36% deficit to EIS 2035 req. -42% add. FB solution B777-9X vs B777-200ER 31% deficit to EIS 2035 req. -39% add. FB solution Adv. configuration vs Y2000 (-25% TSFC, +7% L/D) 21% deficit to EIS 2035 req. -30% additional FB solution This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran Parametric Descriptors Non-dimensional degree-of-hybridisation > Conventional kerosene based thermal engine Propulsion and Power System – HP = 0 and HE = 0 > Full Turbo-Electric where only electrical power is provided at the propulsive device(s) but energy storage is solely kerosene based – HP = 1 and HE = 0 > All-Electric aircraft where energy storage is batteries only (or non-drop-in) – here HP = 1 and HE = 1 Architectural Options and Parametric Descriptors 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren3 Architectural Options > Hybrid-Electric uses thermal engines with batteries  Series, or, Parallel, or, Series+Parallel > Turbo-Electric involves use of electrical generators  Full or Partial Turbo-Electric TOT EL P P P H  TOT EL E E E H  power hybridisaton total power e-motor power energy hybridisaton US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2016 This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran State-of-the-Art and Beyond B787 is a good example of MEA hybrid-voltage approach > E.g. AC generator output 34% (B777)  53% > Even with such improvements around 5% CRZ fuel burn is dedicated to electrical energy conversion When considering wide-bodies, adoption of SOFC, can configure to achieve around 2% CRZ fuel burn More-Electric Aircraft Evolution and Limits 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren4 Non-Propulsive Energy Systems Trade Outcomes for narrow-body > No step-change in fuel burn between architectures > Importance of engine off-design operation constraints In-house studies of true all-electric for narrow-body essential, non-essential and vital NPE systems > ~ 0.5 MW peak power (over 5x conventional baseline) > ~ 60% of req. power to essential syst. for all phases Reference Pneum. ECS / thermo-pneumatic WIPS Mixed Pneumatic ECS / electro-thermal WIPS Bleedless Elect.-pow. ECS / electro-thermal WIPS Step-change in aircraft fuel burn efficiency only occurs when propulsive & non-propulsive considered TOGETHER Whyatt and Chick, US DOE 2012 This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran Design Space Exploration – Autarkic Hybrid-Electric & All-Electric 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren5 RR Case 1.2 154 PAX SAF PACIFYC 19 PAX Airbus VoltAir ~ 70 PAX NASA LEAPTech 4 PAX BHL Ce-Liner 189 PAXONERA AMPERE 4 PAX This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran PACIFYC: SERIES/PARALLEL HYBRID COMMUTER 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren6 CONCLUSIONS: Block fuel reduction potential of 15-20% for hybridisation strategies with 40-50% Power and 12-16% Energy Beechcraft 1900D Architecture designed for safety - ARCH 1: thermal engines designed for MCRZ rating only, eProp “tops-up” for take-off and OEI, self-contained batteries with in-flight energy recovery and/or ground recharge - ARCH 4: exchangeable batteries during turn-around, applicable to 19 / 70 / 180 PAX Fefermann et al., ICAS 2016 This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran Design Space Exploration – Open-loop Hybrid-Electric 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren7 RR Case 1.2 154 PAX SAF PACIFYC 19 PAX SAF PACIFYC 19 PAX SAF-BHL Tri-Fan 70/180 PAX RR Config 1 154 PAX BHL Twin-Fan 180 PAX UTC-NASA hGTF 154 PAX Bo SUGARVolt 154 PAX BHL Quad-Fan 180 PAX Airbus VoltAir ~ 70 PAX NASA LEAPTech 4 PAX BHL Ce-Liner 189 PAXONERA AMPERE 4 PAX This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran HEX-ROTOR: TURBO-ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTED PROPULSION ROTORCRAFT 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren8 CONCLUSIONS: Due to increased bill-of-material of VRS, CRS has 26% higher specific power Min gross weight with 15% power hybridisation from battery; 10% block fuel reduction PMG PMSM GB Ω Turbine à Gaz Rotor control PMG AM GB Turbine à Gaz Rotor control Variable Rotor Speed (VRS) Constant Rotor Speed (CRS) Overriding requirement: Loss of one power source or control of one rotor not lead to catastrophic loss of flight Airbus Helicopters EC120 Gas Turbine Gas Turbine Lambert et al., Greener Aviation 2016 This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran Design Space Exploration – Partial and Full-Turbo-electric 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren9 RR Case 1.2 154 PAX SAF PACIFYC 19 PAX SAF PACIFYC 19 PAX SAF-BHL Tri-Fan 70/180 PAX UCran. BW-11 555 PAXNASA N3-X 300 PAX Airbus/RR DEAP 100 PAX RR DORA 100 PAX ESAero TeDP NASA STARC-ABL Airbus VoltAir ~ 70 PAX NASA LEAPTech 4 PAX BHL Ce-Liner 189 PAXONERA AMPERE 4 PAX RR Config 1 154 PAX BHL Twin-Fan 180 PAX UTC-NASA hGTF 154 PAX Bo SUGARVolt 154 PAX BHL Quad-Fan 180 PAX SAF HEX-ROTOR 4 PAX This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran Closing Remarks 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren10 Most critical scenario between SRIA 2035 and NASA ARMD requires technology to generate at least additional -30% fuel burn compared to projected gas-turbine only Hybrid/Electric propulsion is a plausible pathway in meeting such agressive goals Series/Parallel Hybrid-Electric as well as Partial Turbo-electric are of interest today By maximizing the extent of system synergies between propulsive and non-propulsive from the outset, possibility exists to fully realise the potential offered by MEA SAFRAN has formulated a series of technological roadmaps both pragmatic and agile in nature purposefully adaptable to meeting future aircraft integrator requirements Time has come for integrators and propulsion system suppliers to design a new generation of more intimately integrated step-change aircraft This document and the information therein are the property of Safran. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran 2017 MEA Session 4 Keynote / C2 - RESERVED / 02.02.2017 / Askin T. Isikveren11