Design and modeling of the piezoelectric motor based on three resonance actuators

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Design and modeling of the piezoelectric motor based on three resonance actuators


application/pdf Design and modeling of the piezoelectric motor based on three resonance actuators Roland Ryndzionek, Michał Michna, Mieczysław Ronkowski, Jean-François Rouchon
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Design and modeling of the piezoelectric motor based on three resonance actuators


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Design and modeling of the piezoelectric motor based on three resonance actuators Roland Ryndzionek (1), Michał Michna (2), Mieczysław Ronkowski (3), Jean-Francois Rouchon (4) 1, 2, 3 : Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering, Gdansk, Poland 1: 2: 3: 4 : Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE) ENSEEIHT – INPT, Toulouse, France Abstract This paper describes a piezoelectric motor which combines advantages from two existing piezoelectric motors topologies. The research work presents the design, simulations and measurements of the piezoelectric motor with three rotation-mode actuators. The aim of the project was to obtain the high speed piezoelectric motor. Other advantages of this conception are blocking torque, short response times, the ability to work in a hostile environment and quiet operation. In the paper a simulations and measurements of the resonance frequencies has been presented, and finally the real model measurements has been done. The purpose of those efforts was to develop a new actuator dedicated for the embedded applications. Introduction Conventional aircraft architecture is a combination of hydraulic, mechanical pneumatic and electrical systems. In last year’s electrification system is the most developing market. Technological advantages allow obtaining better security and control for equipment. In this case, developing the new and better technologies is required. A promising alternative is using an actuators based on electroactive materials [4]. In general the piezoelectric motors are generally built using either quasi-static or resonance operating topologies. Working in a step mode those actuators rarely generate rated torque greater than tens of Nm. However they exhibit interesting properties in terms of torque per mass ratio and small dimensions.[5] Therefore, the main aim of the presented research work is the implantation problem of electroactive materials technology to develop the high power piezoelectric motors, dedicated to embedded applications. General conception Historically, Pierre and Jacques Curie show in 1881, the direct piezoelectric effect. A year later, Pierre and Jacques Curie, basing on the work of Lippmann, demonstrated the existence of an inverse effect [11]. Fn (Normal force) Ft (Tangential force) Traveling wave Resonant structure Housing Elliptical movement V = 0.5 ms-1 f < 100 kHz Rotor Stator Fig. 1 Piezoelectric motor wave propagating principle The operation principle of piezoelectric motor based on large movement’s amplitude transformed from micro displacements (Fig. 1) and are interesting for applications where the functional integration and reduced mass are required. Piezoelectric materials can be used as oscillators (quartz crystal), and in the case of piezoelectric motors, usually PZT ceramics are implemented [1],[7-8]. Fig. 2 shows the classification of actuators technologies (like sensors) according to the force, velocity characteristics. Electroative actuators which have the highest energy density are based on piezoelectric ceramics or magnetostrictive ceramics [9]. Fig. 2 Comparison of the various electromechanical effects in terms of specific energy [10] The multicell piezoelectric motor is a combination of the traveling wave motor and piezoelectric rotating mode motor. It mixing the advantages of both motors such as: ultrasonic frequency range, simple build, quiet operation, short response times (a few ms) [6]. In this case three resonance actuators have been used. On each actuator the traveling wave is propagating, it provides to obtain better mechanical properties of the motor. The symmetrical construction allows to use the two rotors. The shaft is driven from two sources, what improves the velocity of the motor. In the final analysis, the obtained advantages are: high velocity, high resonance frequency in each actuator, prestressed structure, symmetrical construction and blocking torque when the motor is not powered. The detailed description of structure, conception and some measurements of the multicell piezoelectric motor has been presented in [2] and [3]. The idea for this prototype is to control the movement of the devices where high precision, quick response and blocking torque is required, e.g. the passenger seats. To convert the rotational movement from the shaft the satellite roller screw will be used. This electromechanical structure is able to move the passenger seat up and down or forward and backward. The great advantage of this construction is the blocking torque because the rotor do not move even when the power supply is off. Due to high velocity of the motor, the operation of the device is precise and it is possible to have better control compared to standard constructions. Other advantage is weight of this electromechanical structure which is much lighter compared to electric motor. And finally the control of the piezoelectric motor is much simpler than e.g. the stepper motor. The virtual model prototype (Fig. 3) has been prepared in FEM software (Autodesk Multiphysics and Ansys). The multicell piezoelectric motor is composed of three main parts: stator (counter-mass) with four piezoceramics, rotor and housing case. As it was said, to manufacture the stator, three actuators have been used. The actuators are oriented by 120° and connected. So the counter-mass is a single part. The goal of the project was to achieve motor velocity high as possible, relatively high torque and quiet operation which need keep resonance frequencies in ultrasonic range (more than 20 kHz). Fig. 3 Prototype of the virtual model Simulations and resonance frequency measurements During designing process some important aspects have been considered. As was said in previous paragraph, the resonance frequency has to be greater than 20 kHz, that required the compact structure. The static simulations gave the resonance resonance frequency around 25.6 kHz. The stator was made of aluminum. The simulation results are shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 4 Deformation of the single actuator In Autodesk Multiphysics the stress simulation has been performed. The aim of this simulation was to check the compressive strength on the top of the stator – the contact surface between rotor and stator. The simulation shown, that the stress is distributed over a wide area and the maximum value is 9 N/mm2 (Fig. 5). Fig. 5 The stress simulation in the counter-mass In summary, the static and stress simulations gave very good results. Resonance frequencies are in inaudible range due to used material and shape of the actuators. By using the aluminum, the mechanical losses are lower in comparison to steel. Another important advantage of aluminum is low weight. The density is 2.71 g/cm3 and the volume of the counter- mass is 13 887 cm3 , so the weight is 38g. The prototype has been prepared on 3D printer. The material used to the counter-mass (Fig. 6) production was aluminum due to its’ high resonance frequencies. It should be noticed that, using the 3D printer is changing the material properties, so the frequencies will be lower than in the solid piece of aluminum. The surfaces were not smooth, so the stator-rotor contact surfaces should be polished. Fig. 6 The counter-mass of the multicell piezoelectric motor Rotor is not fixed on the shaft directly, thus the top side has holes where special spring could be placed. The springs are a kind of mechanical transmission/coupling. To create a rotational movement the ending plate will used. To get different pressure condition, the special springs from “Smalley” company have been chosen. They offer an advantage of space savings when used to replace coil springs. All of the motor’s components are presented on fig.6. Stator Rotor Spring Case Rotor Shaft Ending plate Bearing Fig. 7 All components of the multicell piezoelectric motor When stator have been assembled, the measurements of the resonance frequencies have been carried out. It is the first step in verification process of the prototype. For each actuator two phases of power supply are needed – for generating the traveling wave. Measuring the resonance frequencies of the single actuator, it was important to obtain the same frequency on each phase. The results are shown below: Fig. 8 Resonance frequency at first actuator Fig. 9 Resonance frequency at second actuator Fig. 10 Resonance frequency at third actuator Obtained frequencies are almost the same on all actuators. Measured values are around 22 kHz. The results of the simulations and real model measurements are equal. Torque and speed measurements Final step in developing the prototype of the multicell motor was measurements of the mechanical quantities such as velocity and torque. The analytical model was prepared in Matlab. In theoretical analysis the maximal torque and speed were calculated. The maximum torque was obtained by torque approximation in single actuator. The theoretical and measurements curve will be summarized in Fig 11. When all motor parts have been assembled (the ending plate with four springs on each side is propelled by the rotor) certain tests of rotational movement have been performed with different force acting on the stator. The first test has been done with the use of linear power amplifier. The second test has been done with the use of powerful tool - dSpace. First measurements were made with small power amplifier. The voltage was set at 165V (Fig. 10). Obtained maximal velocity was 25 rpm. Fig. 11 The measurements prepared on the laboratory test bench with 165V limit. Second, with dSpace interface were valtage was around 400V. The type DS1005 controller, a power converter, and type DS2004 high-speed A/D board were used. The DS1005 controller has processor board that provide the possibility for real-time monitoring and also functioning as an interface to the I/O boards and the host PC. Matlab and dSPACE enabled the control of the power supplied to the prototype. The simple program which allows to modify the resonant frequency, output amplitude and phase has been created. The measurements of the prototype gave 48 rpm velocity and blocking torque 0.4 Nm. Torque/Speed courve Torque (Nm) Speed (rpm) measurements calculations blocking torque max speed Fig. 12 Teoretical and real model measurements In the theoretical curve some coefficients are constant. Do not change during the motor operation. That way the differences come between calculations and measurements. Conclusions In this paper, the development of a new structure of piezoelectric motor which combines an advantages of traveling wave motor and rotating-mode motor the multicell piezoelectric motor for embedded aircraft applications has been described. The measurements of the resonance frequencies have been presented and the mechanical parameters have been measured. The final measurements of the multicell piezoelectric motor gave good results. The obtained velocity was 46-48 rpm, and the blocking torque was 0.4 Nm. The highest velocity has been obtained supplying the motor from dSpace laboratory stand. The voltage level was set at 400V. Higher voltage caused that the working principle was disturbed. The performance of the motor could be improve e.g. by reduction of the friction coefficient – using the different rotor material. The obtained motor performance characteristics have proved advantages of the chosen technology. Presented results are promising and gave good point for future analysis. References 1. T. Sashida, T. Kenjo, “An introduction to ultrasonic motors”, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1993 2. R. Ryndzionek, J-F. Rouchon, M. Ronkowski, M. Michna, L. Sienkiewicz, Design, Modelling and analysis of a new type of piezoelectric motor. Multicell piezoelectric motor, IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE, pp. 3910-3915, Nov. 2013 3. Ryndzionek, J-F. Rouchon, M. Ronkowski, M. Michna, Analytical Modelling of the Multicell Piezoelectric Motor Based on Three Resonance Actuators, IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE, Nov. 2014 4. W. Szlabowicz, J-F. Rouchon, Nogarede B.,”Design and realization of a rotating-mode piezoelectric motor for aeronautic applications.” 10th International Conference on New Actuators, 2006. 5. Y. Ting, Y. Tsai, B-K. Hou, S-C Lin, C-C Lu, “Stator Design of a New Type of Spherical Piezoelectric Motor”, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 2010, Vol. 57, No. 10 6. H. Hirata, S. Ueha, “Design of a Traveling Wave Type Ultrasonic Motor”, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 1995, Vol. 42, No. 2 7. Y. Bar-Cohen, X. Bao, W. Gradia, “Rotary Ultrasonic Motors Actuated By Traveling Flexural Waves”, Proceeding of SPIE’s 6th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, 1999, 1-5 March 8. T. Mashimo, S. Toyama, H. Ishida, “Design and Implementations of Spherical Ultrasonic Motor”, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 2009, Vol. 56, No. 11 9. B. Nogarede, C. Henaux, J-F. Rouchon, "Actionneurs électromécaniques pour la robotique et le positionnement" Techniques de l’Ingenieur, pp. 1-20, 2009. 10. B. Nogarede, D. Harribey, "De la piézoélectricité aux actionneurs électromécaniques du futur", INP-Enseeiht-LAPLACE, Le groupe de Recherché en Electrodynamique, 2005. 11. Mirosław Dąbrowski, "Evolution of the theory and applications of ultrasonic motors" pp. 33-45, 2001.