MEA 2015 More Electric Aircraft

A propos

Post-conference info and documents download: With an attendance around 300 altogether, MEA2015 has fulfilled the organizers' expectations. 

Preliminary analysis of the evaluation forms indicates the audience was globally satisfied ; last minute cancellations were quite limited (the Aerospace Valley cluster representative at the opening, 3 oral presentations out of 25, 2 of them being replaced through poster transformation, and 4 posters out of 78...). 

You can access  here a video highlighting the 3 keynote speeches on Wednesday morning. Comments are in French...

A selection of slides from the keynote and oral presentations are available  to the conference participants and to SEE members for download on request (you need to be logged in to request access of these documents - Go to mea2015.org, log in and click "Request access" )


Latest news:

In the few remaining days, we know the authors of the more than 100 presentations are very busy in finalizing their slides or poster, which will be the real core of the conference.

But in addition, high level speakers are now confirmed for the opening and keynote addresses on tuesday afternoon : Agnès Paillard will speak for Aerospace Valley cluster, Charles Champion for Airbus, André Benhamou for the regional aerospace industry association, and François Gerin for the organizing societies.

The keynote speakers on the following morning are also most likely to fascinate the audience: Eric Dautriat, executive director of Cleansky Joint Undertaking is going to present "A more Electric Innovation Chain in Europe", Alain Sauret, CEO of Safran Labinal Power Systems: "Power and Data Systems - Hunting for Simplification", and Colin Smith, CTO of Rolls-Royce, will perfectly introduce the following engine session wih his speech "How the More Electric Aircraft is influencing a More Electric Engine and More!"

Last but not least, a dozen of debaters are preparing to confront their vision on present and future challenges in the 2 closing round table, under guidance of an experienced aerospace journalist.

Those are really good reasons for you to confirm attendance at MEA2015 !

  

Future aircraft technology will increasingly rely on electrical power.  From unmanned drones and small, piloted light aircraft which are currently battery or solar powered, it is envisioned that technological developments will see future transport aircraft electrically powered and adopting hydrogen energy storage.

There are many benefits to the more electric aircraft.  The move to electric brakes and the recently advertised electrical "green taxiing" systems allow airlines to reduce operating costs and environmental impact during ground operations.  Wide-body aircraft already benefit from sophisticated electrical power management systems and increased numbers of all-electric actuators. Current research and development programmes in Europe and beyond are pushing new technological advances to make electrical systems more reliable and power dense.  These include new power electronic devices, novel high efficiency, power dense generators, advanced actuation systems as well as real-time power management. These will directly contribute to lighter aircraft and subsequent reduction in fuel consumption and will pave the way towards greener aviation.

Following the successful European More Electric Aircraft conference held in Bordeaux in November 2012, and its national predecessor in Toulouse in January 2009, the co-organisers of MEA2015 ( 3AF and SEE) invite you to participate in this new exciting conference edition in Toulouse. This will be an excellent opportunity to meet and network with top industry and research representatives, to share ideas, problems and solutions relating to technological developments as well as future concepts relating to more electrical aircraft.

 

Chairs of the programme committee:

 

  • Serge Berenger (Vice President, Innovation and R&T, Safran Labinal Power Systems)
  • Christopher Gerada (Professor at the University of Nottingham)

Chair of the organization committee:

  • Florent Christophe (SEE & ONERA)

Organizers

 

At the same location and time period, the international conference on Fundamentals and Developments of Fuel Cells will hold its 6th. edition, FDFC2015. Both conferences will hold a joint session on fuel cell developments for aircraft.

For more information see http://www.fdfc2015-toulouse.org
Each conference will facilitate access to the other.

Sponsors et organisateurs

Documents

XLS

Keynotes ()

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Voir la vidéo

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More Electrical Aircraft : Potential impacts on the Supply Chain MEA 2015 Conference Toulouse, February 3rd, 2015 André Benhamou, TOMPASSE, Président TOMPASSE is an association set in 2007 that groups industrial companies in the “Aeronautics, Space and Embedded Systems” field in the Midi-Pyrenees Region.  Promote the industries involved in the Region  Facilitate regular discussions between industrial companies in the sector  Become a natural point of contact for regional partners (Local State authorities, local communities, etc..)  Be involved in regional actions for Aeronautics, Space and Embedded Systems. More information : http://www.tompasse.com Contact : contact@tompasse.com MEA 2015 Conference 2/14 Starting point : A new aircraft significantly more efficient (DOC, emissions..) than today aircrafts will necessitate : • An improved aircraft configuration • New engines • Breakthrough technologies for systems and structural parts conducting to new products The MEA is fully involved in this adventure MEA 2015 Conference 3/14 TOMPASSE, on request of DIRECCTE Midi-Pyrénées has driven an analysis with ARCHERY Consulting in order to evaluate the trend of the supply chain structuring. The work in still on-going however some preliminary results of this study are included in this presentation. MEA 2015 Conference 4/14 On existing platforms the supply chain for aircraft parts is well structured : a simplified view • Aircraft manufacturer packages : 1. Structural parts (*) (complex or critical packages) 2. Pylon between engine and wing 3. Cockpit design & integration 4. Some generic components or critical systems 5. Integration packages (HP, LP air ducting, fuel piping, hydraulic ducts, wiring..) • Tier 1 Supplier packages : 1. Engines with or without nacelle : engine are certified separately large autonomy 2. Structural parts : A/C manufacturers significantly involved  limited autonomy 3. All systems mainly splitted by ATA chapter  Intermediate autonomy In the value chain, each package has its own supply chain (Tier 2, 3, 4…). Some suppliers may be common to several packages. (*) Structural parts mean : fuselage, wings, pressure bulkheads… MEA 2015 Conference 5/14 In the last twenty years the trend was to increase the size of the supplier packages for two main reasons : • Share program & financial risks between the A/C manufacturer and its major suppliers • Launch several programs in parallel without increasing too much the size of design offices and therefore reducing NRC at A/C manufacturer. The result is : • Tier 1 suppliers are becoming bigger and bigger and could become a new category of Super Tier 1 allowing some existing Tier 1 to become Tier 2. • A consolidation of the industry is on-going and there are less and less independent intermediate size companies. • The gap between big groups and small companies is wider than before. However, this picture is not totally stabilized as some A/C manufacturers are going back and resize packages. MEA 2015 Conference 6/14 How a MEA could impact the supply chain : • New technologies will imply new actors : • Examples : Connected Aircraft, power electronics, high voltage technologies, new generation of composites etc… • The A/C design will necessarily go across ATA chapters to have a global optimization of the electrical configuration  power management, thermal management, degraded modes etc.. • A rupture aircraft by definition will present new technological challenges and may lead A/C manufacturers to keep more products internally to mitigate risks, at least for the first application. • Same behaviour could also be seen at major Tier 1. MEA 2015 Conference 7/14 • Definition of the overall architecture of a new aircraft • Global optimization of the electrical and thermal architecture • Identification of the new functional chains • Definition of consistant technical packages minimizing interfaces and interactions between them • Definition of procurement packages allowing competition • Selection of suppliers mastering the key technologies of the considered package and having the financial strenghes  new Tier 1. MEA 2015 Conference 8/14 A possible scenario ! • What could be the trend for the various players ? 9 Preliminary design System design Detailed design Industrialization Production Assembly & Tests Support & Services Tier 3 to Tier n Tier 2 Tier 1 & Super Tier 1 A/C Manufacturer Value chain Offer Parts Systems Components and software MEA 2015 Conference 9/14 As a consequence we can expect to see Tier 1 and Super Tier 1 with a minimal critical size i.e. above 1 BUSD turnover able to : • Develop complex work packages • Contract Management, Program Management, System Architects • Develop a real product policy • Have financial strengh to live with a business model including more than 50 to 100 MUSD development NRC per program • Guarantee its package for the life of the program • Spare and Piece part availability, obsolescence management, technical follow-up / retrofit … • Manage a worldwide supply chain MEA 2015 Conference 10/14 Tier 2 suppliers will be of intermediate size i.e. 100 to 200 MUSD turnover and able to : • Share a mix between built-to-print and built-to-spec • Share a limited risk transfer from their customers • Have financial strengh to follow the technology changes and stay state-of-the-art in their domain • Be competitive & manage their supply chain MEA 2015 Conference 11/14 In that scenario what could become the supply chain particularly SME : • Components suppliers • Technology « niches » • Piece parts and special processes for A/C manufacturers & Tier 1 • Capacity sub contractors And outside A/C parts : • Test rigs and tooling • Proximity services • Special expertises MEA 2015 Conference 12/14 Possible schedule for a new MEA : Unless one player decides to launch a new program earlier….. 2015 2022 2025 2032 EISProgram launchRFI/RFP 7 years +3 years 2020 RFTI  Next five years : R & T to reach the right TRL for MEA new technologies  RFTI & RFI will be a competitive phase to evaluate the readiness of MEA technologies and organize the supply chain  Therefore timeframe from 2015 to 2025 can be used to improve existing family of aircrafts. MEA 2015 Conference 13/14 Thank you for your attention !! MEA 2015 Conference 14/14

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MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURETQ3 REVENUE 2011 / OCTOBER 21, 2011 / Power & Data systems Hunting for simplification Alain Sauret, LPS CEO MEA2015 conference Toulouse, February 4th 2015 1 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET Safran is nearly positioned across the whole chain, with LPS acting as the strong arm of electrical power systems Power sources AGB Generator Distribution Power converterActuators Various loads EWIS for power Engine RAT Fuel Cells Battery ATA24 & EWIS Up to 1.5MW electrical power to manage (combining all power sources) Flight controls Nacelle Landing gear EWIS for data APU Electric fans Configuration management 2 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET Towards MEA A320ceo, F7X A380 & A350 Boeing 787 A30X Wing & nacelle deicing Pneumatic Pneumatic Electricity Electricity? ECS, Start Avionics, Lighting, etc. Electricity Electricity Commercial loads Control braking Hydraulic Partial electrification Control (FCS, steering) Hydraulic Partial electrification?Configure (landing gear, TRAS) 3 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET Aircraft include more functions and become more electric, impacting cost, weight and complexity in design Cost & weight are function of carried power but also of electrical architecture and installation ATA24 EWIS Boeing 787 A320ceo Falcon 7X Weight Shipset Boeing 787 A320ceo Falcon 7X Weight Shipset A320ceo 270kW Falcon 7X 50kW Boeing 787 1,500kW Price Price E d 4 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET A clear trend towards more complexity and power optimization  New functions and power optimized aircraft  More electrical power to be distributed and increasing volume of data to be transmitted  Electrical architecture is evolving from centralized to distributed power distribution systems  The growing electrification and complexity of systems lead to more integrated power and data  A need to reduce costs  Reducing RC through more integration – reduce the number of parts  Reducing NRC through more concurrent engineering across the entire chain with the objective of simplifying  Reducing OC through more flexibility of functions and robust products at EIS Simplifying the current power and data systems could be the enabler for a MEA with more functionalities 5 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET The challenge of simplification is high - can we address it better than today?  A team challenge  Airframers, Equipment suppliers and Certification authorities jointly challenging architectures and products, respecting the role of each player in the team  Academia and industry jointly developing new technologies through a lean mid & long term roadmap  Building new standards  Successful Technology insertion  Robustness and maturity demonstration methodology  Fit for Purpose approach for both incremental and breakthrough  Invest in Tools and Processes  For better modeling and simulation, as “a learning machine”  For more efficient development, certification, production and operation  New cooperation models  Reducing NRC for both airframers and equipment suppliers  Anticipating and sharing risks & revenues over the Life Cycle Integration and robustness increase at lower costs Simplifying Power & Data management and transport

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A more Electric Innovation Chain in Europe Clean Sky, Innovation Takes Off Toulouse 3-5 February 2015 Eric Dautriat Executive Director – Clean Sky Joint Undertaking Clean Sky : Innovation takes off Europe’s largest Aeronautics Research Programme ever • CS1 started in 2008 within FP7, up to 2017; continuation decision in 2014 with CS2 in H2020 • Environmental objectives for CS1: CO2 and noise • Environment, competitiveness and mobility for CS2 • CS1: 1.6 B€ value; CS2: 4 B€ • Integrated breakthrough technologies, up to full scale demos • CS2: 2014-2020 (2024) • 600 participants in CS1 www.cleansky.eu Concept Aircraft Integrated Program Structure Sustainable and Green Engines Systems for Green Operations Eco-Design Clean Sky Technology Evaluator Green RotorcraftSmart Fixed Wing Aircraft Green Regional Aircraft TECHNOLOGIES & DEMONSTRATORS MEA = 10% of Clean Sky A wide « innovation chain » 24% 36% 20% 20% Industries SMEs Research Organisations Universities 65 Associates 6x2 Leaders >500 Partners ~230 participations in Systems for Green Operations Clean Sky 2 : a big step forward Large Systems ITDs Vehicle IADPs Integr. Aircraft Demonstr Platforms TechnologyEvaluator(TE) GermanAerospaceCenter(DLR) TechnologyEvaluator(TE) GermanAerospaceCenter(DLR) Eco-Design FraunhoferGesellschaft Eco-Design FraunhoferGesellschaft Regional Aircraft Alenia Aermacchi Regional Aircraft Alenia Aermacchi Fast Rotorcraft Agusta Westland Eurocopter Fast Rotorcraft Agusta Westland Eurocopter Engines ITD Safran – Rolls-Royce – MTU Engines ITD Safran – Rolls-Royce – MTU Systems ITD Thales – Liebherr Systems ITD Thales – Liebherr Airframe ITD Dassault – EADS-CASA – Saab Airframe ITD Dassault – EADS-CASA – Saab SmallAirTransport Evektor–Piaggio SmallAirTransport Evektor–Piaggio 1.8b€ Total EU Funding Proposed Large Passenger Aircraft Airbus Large Passenger Aircraft Airbus Clean Sky - More Electric Aircraft - Toulouse - 3-5 Feb 15 Clean Sky is now about 85% of the EU- funded aeronautical research SGO - Management of Aircraft Energy SGO Technology Development & Validation of Electrical Aircraft Systems Stakeholders in the WP Member and Partner Know-How from previous R&T projects Electrical Equipment Thermal Management Equipment Load Management Functions Skin HX MAE developments for Large Aircraft Electrical ECS Electrical WIPS Engine Nacelle Sys Electrical Power Center Wiring System Ice Detection Load Management Vapour Cycle cooling system 7 Generators E-ECS pack New Alternator and: • New AC Primary Electrical Distribution • Cabin Electrical & E-ECS power racks • 270VDC Electrical Energy Management Power Center (E-EM EPC) • Simulated Resistive Load (SREL) • EMAs electrical loads (in cabin) • FTI/Flight Test Station (FTES) 270 HVDC network demo channel Electrical Energy Management logics validation EMA/Bench test on A/C Demo MEA Modifications: EPGS Mod: Electrical Power – Modification of ACWF generation and distribution E-EMS Mod: Electrical Power – Installation of 270V DC Generation distribution including Electrical Power Center (EPC) and Simulated Resistive Electrical Load (SREL) E-ECS Mod: Air Conditioning – Installation of an Experimental electrical environmental control sys. – E-ECS (one pack) EMAs Mod: Installation of two electrical actuator EMAs – FCS/LG (each mounted on a dedicated test bench, both located in Cabin) One example of flight tests: ATR-72 testbed MEA in Clean Sky 2 / ITD Systems Clean Sky - More Electric Aircraft - Toulouse - 3-5 Feb 15 Avionics / cockpit Cabin & cargo systems Electrical wing Landing gear systems Major loads Small Air Transport Systems Electrical Chain + MEA-related activities in other Platforms, e.g. Airframe and Large Aircraft A more electric Clean Sky innovation chain Clean Sky framework intended to bring : - An optimized, balanced funding for airframer and equipments manufacturers (and engine manufacturers) - a close collaboration between systems suppliers and airframers - the involvement of bottom-up innovation processes from SMEs and Universities to integrators - a novel, integrated system design environment with appropriate tools •Clean Sky - More Electric Aircraft - Toulouse - 3-5 Feb 15 www.cleansky.eu Hosting a unique blend of high tech companies throughout Europe, and a set of advanced test- benches, Clean Sky is the ideal house for highly contributing to the development of “more electric” widspread innovation First Call for Proposals for Clean Sky 2 launched in December – will close end of March: We need your talents

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1 Trusted to deliver excellence © 2015 Rolls-Royce plc The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc. This information is given in good faith based upon the latest information available to Rolls-Royce plc, no warranty or representation is given concerning such information, which must not be taken as establishing any contractual or other commitment binding upon Rolls-Royce plc or any of its subsidiary or associated companies. How the More Electric Aircraft is influencing a More Electric Engine and More! European Conference on More Electric Aircraft Toulouse, February 4-5, 2015 Colin Smith CBE FRS Director of Engineering and Technology, Rolls-Royce plc 2 Colin Smith CBE FRS • Joined Rolls-Royce in 1974 as an undergraduate apprentice • Chief Engineer of Small Engines in Bristol • Chief Engineer for the Trent 500 and Trent 700 Engine projects • Director of Research and Technology in 2001 • Director of Engineering and Technology in 2005 Unlike Sir Henry Royce, not an Electrical Engineer by background! 3 A brief history of Rolls-Royce 1884 FH Royce & Co 1899 Royce Ltd 1904 Rolls meets Royce 1906 Rolls- Royce Ltd 1931 'R' Engine wins Schneider Trophy 1940 Merlin helps win Battle of Britain 1940s R-R begins Gas Turbine Development 1953 Dart & Avon enter Civil Market 1969 1st run of RB211 1990 1st run of Trent 1966 Bristol Aero Engines acquired 1995 Allison acquired 1999 Vickers acquired 2000 BMW Aero Engs acquired 2013 TrentXWB Certification 1914 1st R-R Aero Engine 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 4 Rolls-Royce products today Civil Aerospace Defence Aerospace Marine Power Systems Our engines keep up 400,000 people in the air at any one time 160 armed forces around the world depend on our engines 30,000 commercial and naval vessels use our marine equipment Develop, produce and service energy markets under the MTU and Bergen engine brands Nuclear Design authority for the Royal Navy's naval nuclear plant 5 The move to a More Electric Engine • Over the last 100 years transportation has become increasingly electrified • Increased sharply over the last decade with the Boeing 787 ‘More Electric Aircraft’ • As we look to the future this trend will only increase… • … and the Engineering challenges are great! 6 ‘Electric’ Warships of WWII • Launched in 1918; the USS Mexico was claimed to be the worlds first Electric Warship • Used 20% less fuel than it’s two sister ships which had conventional direct drive turbine. • The design used in the Tennessee class battleships The Electric Revolution In Marine Propulsion Rim Driven Tunnel Thruster • Thrusters of this type are installed on all type of vessels • They are used for harbour manoeuvring and ship positioning during operations at sea • Rolls-Royce produce ~500 thrusters per year 7 The Present – Key driving factor Why the More Electric Aircraft has changed the gas turbine The Future – Key Driver How the all Electric Aircraft will impact the propulsion system The move to a More Electric Engine Contents 8 Aerospace Industry Challenges Overall ACARE* Environmental Targets for 2020 The ACARE targets represent a doubling of the historical rate of improvement… * Advisory Council for Aerospace Research in Europe Targets are for new aircraft and whole industry relative to 2000 Reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 50% Reduce NOX emissions by 80% Reduce perceived external noise by 50% The move to a More Electric Engine Present - Key driver 9 How the More Electric Aircraft has changed the Gas Turbine IN: Fuel Start air OUT: Thrust HP air Wing anti-ice air Electricity Hydraulics Fuel Start air Electricity (hotel mode) Cabin air (hotel mode) Air Hydraulics Cabin air Pneumatic Wing anti- ice ECS RAT APU Cabin airHP air Electricity, Hydraulics (emergency) Conventional More electric IN: Fuel Electric start OUT: Thrust Electricity Fuel Electric start Electricity (hotel mode only) Cabin air Air Options Electrical actuation Cabin air Electrical wing anti- icing New APU design Bleed Deleted RAT ECS Increased complexity of system control including Engine 10 How the More Electric Aircraft has changed the Gas Turbine 1980 20001990 2020 20302010 PowerRequirements[kW] 500 1000 1500 2000 Hybrid / All Electric Aircraft More Electric Aircraft B787 A380 F4 - 60kW F35 F14 Conventional B767 Progression of Aircraft Electrical Power Requirements 11 Power Optimised Aircraft Project • 43 European aerospace partners The objectives were: • To test candidate technologies • To find out what are the critical design issues associated with installing these technologies. • The engine test was to prove the capability of these technologies it was not a product demonstrator Examples of Previous Rolls-Royce Experience SEED (Small Electric Engine Demonstrator) • Single Spool Core Demonstrator Engine on Build Stand • The first in-house Rolls-Royce engine with embedded electric start 12 The Trent 1000 has been tailored for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner™ Built on the success of the Trent family, the Trent 1000 offers airline operators a unique combination. • Trent family experience • Advanced technology • Smart design The move to a More Electric Engine Trent 1000 – Tailored for the More Electric Aircraft 13 Unique to 3-shaft architecture • Fuel savings on short range • Best Compressor Operability • Lower idle thrust • Lower noise Challenges surrounding Electrical to Mechanical stiffness • Sustained Torsional oscillation • Increased integration of systems The move to a More Electric Engine Intermediate Pressure Power Off-Take 14 • Novel Starter Generator • Electrical Accessories • Electric Actuators • Advanced Bearings • Potential to remove the Accessory Gearbox • Can be Bled or Bleedless engine The move to a More Electric Engine Key technology components 15 The move to a More Electric Engine The main challenges Rolls-Royce Proprietary Information Page 15 of 5 Technology • x1 order of magnitude for Thermal Integration • X2 order of magnitude for Power Electronics • X3 order of magnitude for Technology Risk • Customer has zero tolerance to programme delay 16 Potential targets • Aircraft movements are emission-free when taxiing. • Air vehicles are designed and manufactured to be recyclable. • Europe is established as a centre of excellence on sustainable alternative fuels Targets are for new aircraft and whole industry relative to 2000 Reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 75% Reduce NOX emissions by 90% Reduce perceived external noise by 65% The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Future Key driver – New ACARE Targets for 2050 17 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! The S-Curve of Technology Cycles 18 Distributed Electrical Aerospace Propulsion (DEAP) project • Technology Strategy Board and Industry funded project (value £1.07M); • Partners are Airbus Innovation, Rolls-Royce and University of Cranfield; • Started in early 2013 and runs until 2015; • Key innovative technologies: • Improved fuel economy • Reduced exhaust gas and noise emissions • Distributed Propulsion (DP) system architecture • Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Fully Distributed Propulsion 19 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Fully Distributed Propulsion Concept Layout Copyright © 2013 Rolls-Royce, plc All rights reserved. Electrically-Powered Fans Single Advanced Gas Turbine Power Electronics 20 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Fully Distributed Propulsion Concept Layout 21 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! The main challenges Superconducting electric machines Very high power dense advanced Power Electronics Cryogenic cooling 22 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Challenges - Advanced Power Electronics  N-Technology Stream (Now Generation) - Silicon based technology developed from automotive experience;  N+1 Technology Stream (Next Generation) - New generation Integrated Silicon Carbide or Gallium Nitride Devices - Ultra Efficient (>99%)  N+2 Technology Stream (Generation after next) - A suite of technology streams will be developed by our network of University Technology Centres ready for later technology insertion 23 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Challenges - Cryogenic Cooling Cryogenic Cooling for Distributed Propulsion Actual Estimated 24 In Summary • Rolls-Royce is well positioned to understand how a shift to a More Electric Aircraft will impact its product offering • However, the full electrically powered MEA is some way off and • To get there many technical challenges such as increased control and integration of systems will be required • Electrical technology is increasingly important across all our business sectors • Already exploiting the benefits in Marine where weight and space are less important • Need to learn from other industries eg Automotive • RR looking forward to the next 100 years Thank you for your time & attention 25 Questions Copyright © 2013 Rolls-Royce, plc All rights reserved. “Invent once, re-use many times.”

Oral Session 1 Architecture Trends for More Electric Aircraft (Christopher Gerada)

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CedocumentestlapropriétéintellectuelledeDassaultAviation.Ilnepeutêtreutilisé,reproduit,modifié oucommuniquésanssonautorisation.DassaultAviationProprietaryData. Référence Indice Date Toward a More Electrical Falcon Business Jet MEA 2015 Toulouse February 4 & 5 th Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. Agenda • What is about @ aircraft level? • What for?  Design drivers • Means of evaluation and validation • Challenges of E-Systems • Wrap-up MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 2 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- What is about @ aircraft level? “Less engine bleed off-takes” “Less hydraulic lines”  More engine electrical off-takes with Systems Powered By-Wires MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 3 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- What for?  Design drivers The main design drivers @ aircraft level  Dispatch rate/ equipment reliability  Range/ weight/ fuel consumption  Production & maintenance costs  Environmental impact MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 4 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Means of evaluation and validation  System modeling, energy management modeling, aircraft assessments  Electrical network evaluation and modeling validation @ Clean Sky_Copper bird MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 5 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Means of evaluation and validation  Thermal evaluation and modeling validation @ Clean Sky-Thermal bench  Wind tunnel testing/ aircraft testing MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 6 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Challenges of E-Systems Architectures & Aircraft assessment  Clever choice of E-system operation and associated electrical architecture with optimization of the power losses  Could require more equipment and space allocation compared to classical system pending E-choices, weight compromise including:  Heat thermal management: multiple concept looks @  EMI/HIRF/Lightning protection aspects  PbW routing  Implies more electronics, power conversion  Achievement of system failure rate objectives is a challenge  Reliability needs to be addressed in design phase, taking in account the product life  Power electronics and power conversion density shall continue to progress MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 7 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Challenges of E-Systems Dispatch & Operation Production & Maintenance « plug an play equipment » « better failure diagnostics » « green technologies »  Should improve dispatch rate thanks to continuing operation with partial failures  System self-reconfiguration shall be possible  Less hidden/dormant failures MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 8 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Challenges of E-Systems Dispatch & Operation Production & Maintenance « plug an play equipment » « better failure diagnostics » « green technologies »  “Digital factory”: continues the changes brought by the CATIA PLM systems: system automatic tests, new operator skills, less usage of pollutant fluid  Shall reduce production/maintenance cost and immobilization time MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 9 but the equipment cost will depend on forthcoming choices to be made by airliner manufacturers Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Wrap-up More Electrical Systems for a « More Electrical Falcon » « Innovative and efficient» « EASy to use» « Economic and ecologic » MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 10

Oral session 2 The more/all Electric Engine (Dushan Boroyevitch)

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This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 0 / Integration of Electrical Machines into the Engine: Routemap of Technology Options and Opportunities Philip McGoldrick Technology Manager February 2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. /01/ INTRODUCTION 2 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. INTRODUCTION A version of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) is already flying, current state-of-the-art is the Boeing 787. Engine related electrical machine technologies – for both generation and power usage – will need to be developed to move beyond this current state-of-the-art. Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Boeing 787: No-bleed main engines - no pneumatic system. Electric engine starting, cabin pressurisation, anti-ice. Central water-cooled dual-use Power Electronics Traditional hydraulic actuation system Electric braking 29.6 V, 65 Ah Li-Ion batteries… The provision of electrical power has become more critical. 3 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. INTRODUCTION Relentless pressure on operational costs, especially on kg of fuel burnt per passenger-kilometer is pulling through a basket of engine related technologies for electrical equipment – dubbed the More Electric Engine (MEE) Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse 4 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. CONVENTIONAL POWER OFFTAKE IN THE ENGINE Conventional large civil aircraft power offtake from the engine is via the AGB (Auxiliary Gear Box): Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse MECHANICAL Oil and High Pressure Fuel Pumping, independent electrical power sources for engine controls. HYDRAULIC MAINS Flight Controls, Landing Gear, Nose Wheel Steering, High Lift, etc. PNEUMATIC Icing Protection (Wing & Nacelle), Environmental Control System, Engine Start (from APU, especially on rotorcraft). ELECTRICAL Constant Frequency Oil Cooled Generation 400Hz 115VAC (VF on A380, 230VAC VF on A350). 5 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. MORE ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT POWER OFFTAKE Current State-of-the-Art Boeing 787: Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse MECHANICAL Oil and High Pressure Fuel Pumping, independent electrical power sources for engine controls. HYDRAULIC MAINS Electrically Driven – Flight Controls, Landing Gear, Nose Wheel Steering, High Lift, etc. PNEUMATIC Electrically Driven – Icing Protection, Environmental Control System, Engine Start. ELECTRICAL 230VAC VF, +/-270VDC for specific large loads and alternate power sources (Fuel Cell APU’s, etc) DELETED DELETED Some local electrical pumped hydraulically for specific actuators 6 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. MORE ELECTRIC ENGINE POWER OFFTAKE Options on power offtake on future More Electric Engine : Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse MECHANICAL Electrically Driven – Oil and High Pressure Fuel Pumping, variety of electrical power sources. HYDRAULIC MAINS Electrically Driven – Flight Controls, Landing Gear, Nose Wheel Steering, High Lift, etc. PNEUMATIC Electrically Driven – Icing Protection, Environmental Control System, Engine Start. ELECTRICAL 230VAC VF and +/-270VDC for specific large loads DELETED DELETED Some local electrical pumped hydraulically for specific actuators DELETED This power system is now beyond the perimeter of ATA Chapter 24 7 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS /02/ 8 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. KERNEL MESSAGE – THERMAL MANAGEMENT Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse As we make additional progress into the More Electric Aircraft Technology Routemap there are more opportunities for Electrical Machines in engine related applications, but as well as improvements in performance, cost and robustness against the harsh environment, more consideration must also be made for systems’ level optimisation, Certification and Safety Case analyses. Thermal Management via the oil system is viewed as the key aspect of machine, equipment, engine system and overall aircraft integration and optimisation that will dominate the design criteria of the electrical power system, and to a degree determine improvements in efficiency and performance. 9 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. OPTIONS / STRANDS OF TECHNOLOGY Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Technical considerations for Electrical Equipment within the Engine Pod Unit Design Integration Certification Safety Case Electrical pumping in Engine Pod for Oil and High Pressure Fuel “Cluster of Large PMAs” Engine Pod Icing Protection Batteries, Supercaps, Fuel Cells, Electrical power generation from conventional APU gas turbine Ultra High Bypass Engine – AGB equipment suite relocated to fuselage or nearer engine core Low Pressure Shaft Generator Core Mounted Starter / Generator Technologies RAT Replacement Concept of “APU Always Available” 10 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement From the High Bypass Ratio Turbofan to the Open Rotor concept for fixed wing airliners, pressure is on for the equipment suite in the engine pod fancasing to take up much less space. Some technology and system architectures could enable lower profile equipment, but some kit would simply have to move. Electronic controllers and drives are a candidate to move to the Equipment Bay in the fuselage, . . . 11 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement . . . . . but some specific electrical machines and pumping applications on the current AGB would have to be moved closer to the core of the engine. 12 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement The environment here is distinctly harsher than in the fancasing – for temperature and vibration. The process of building up the new Safety Case as part of the Qualification and Certification of both equipment and systems is a considerable challenge. 13 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Concept outlined as part of the EU POA programme (Framework Programme 6), built and tested by Goodrich (now Labinal Power Systems UK) in the FSDG work package. As well as the challenge on Integration, Certification and Safety Case, this FSDG concept also contributes to the optimisation of the engine operation itself, and has implications as a potential RAT replacement. 14 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Small PMAs are already used as high redundancy multiple power sources for engine pod electrical networks – FADEC, controls, etc. Large PMAs would be scaled up versions intended to provide the on- pod electrical supply for the significant power applications of Oil and High Pressure Fuel pumping. Some variants of this concept would have one or more of this “array of PMAs” backdriven for the electrical engine start function. 15 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement The main element of Integration and Safety Case consideration with this architecture option is to use high frequency AC or relatively unconditioned DC generated on the engine pod itself for this local load. Savings would be on weight of passive components and electrical control boxes as the power would not need to be routed to the Primary Distribution Centre in the Equipment Bay, only to be then transmitted back out to the engine pod. 16 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Engine oil services are conventionally pumped from a direct drive mechanical source on the AGB. As pressure mounts to relocate equipment and systems currently mounted in the fancasing to elsewhere in the engine pod, this is one candidate application for swapping to electrical pumping. The main benefit from electrification of this power load could be to run the engine oil services independent of the cranking or operation of the gas turbine itself. 17 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement The High Pressure Fuel circuit is used as a heat sink on the engine pod. However, its capacity is limited due to the inefficiency of its direct drive mechanical pumping. Electrification of this power usage is one way of turning this sub- optimisation at equipment level into an opportunity for the system. Higher efficiency pumping would enable heat from other engine applications (“fuel-draulics”) to be rejected in the fuel circuit. 18 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Concept of “APU Always On.” Related to some of the engine optimisations potentially available from Low Pressure Shaft generation – generally lowering the imbalance of power offtake from the High Pressure Shaft (improved Surge Margin). If redundant / parallel channels are available this could be a potential RAT replacement. 19 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Supercapacitors, Batteries, Fuel Cells, new technology Gas Turbine Generators. Advantages related to the concept of “APU Always On” – but each option is quite distinct. 20 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Two disadvantages to conventional RAT systems: Installed weight is carried permanently without any power being generated; It is possible during an emergency scenario that the pilot doesn’t find out that the RAT is non-operational until he has already pulled the deployment lever. 21 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE ON CHAPTER ATA 24 Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Even if the technical tasks of integration of diverse equipments are derived from the conventional approach to ATA Chapter 24, the selection of Architectures, Topologies, their Integration and subsequent Qualification and composition of the Safety Case will all be new. Unit Design Integration Certification Safety Case 22 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. /03/ CASE STUDY – VARIABLE FREQUENCY STARTER-GENERATORS (VFSG) /03/ 23 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT – PIVOTAL TECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC MACHINES ON ENGINE POD Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Outline comparison on a nominal 90kVA aircraft electrical generator 1960s (Concorde) Indirect Oil Cooling, 6-Pole, 85kg 1970s Spray Oil Cooling, 4-Pole, 40kg 1980s (APU) Spray Oil Cooling, 2-Pole, 23kg The Thermal Management technology (change from indirect to spray) was not used in isolation: Architecture and Topology selection permitted higher rotor speed (therefore physically smaller rotor); Then new Sleeve technology permitted even higher speeds / smaller rotors. The changes to Architecture and Topology used to enable lower weight are outside the perimeter of ATA 24. 24 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT – R&T MACHINES VULCAN VFSG (Variable Frequency Starter-Generator) Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Recorded Start Data 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time (s) Torque(lb-ft)/MainStator Current(Arms) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 GeneraotSpeed(rpm) Calculated Torque (lb-ft) Main Stator Current (A rms) Speed (rpm) 25 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT – R&T MACHINES AMES VFSG (Advanced More Electric Systems, supported by Innovate UK, ex-TSB) Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse s 20 40 60 80 100 120 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 20.0 17.5 15.0 12.5 10.0 7.5 5.0 2.5 0.0 -2.5 Pink Main Stator Amps rms Blue Torque Nm Red Speed rpm Green ME Amps rms 26 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT – R&T MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse VULCAN VFSG 225kVA 230VAC AMES VFSG 200kVA 230VAC Oil Circuit externally pumped Independent Oil Circuit The function of the VFSGs is outside the perimeter of ATA 24, Thermal Management is a major part of the system. 90kVA VFSG 230VAC Oil Circuit development underway in current R&T 27 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. CONCLUSION Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement New technology electrical machines are crossing over the perimeter of the conventional ATA Chapter 24 for Electrical Power Systems. Interface is with the AGB and Engine Pod, as well as the Electrical Network feeding into Distribution, Technical and Hotel electrical loads. Harsher Environments for future systems mean Thermal Management will play a very large role in Integration, Certification and Safety Case.

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State of the art of Helicopter Hybrid Propulsion Christian Mercier – Airbus Helicopters SAS Technical directorate Chief Engineer, Research Department Marignane , France Marc Gazzino Senior expert Electrical systems – On board energy Marc Mugnier Preprojects engineer Abstract — This document presents the state of the art of Helicopter hybrid Propulsion perspectives Summary As done in the car industry, it can be envisaged replacing thermal energy necessary for helicopter propulsion and sustentation by electrical energy. Improvements on electrical technologies allow proposing electrical systems with attractive power to mass ratio to complement the thermal engine providing the mechanical power necessary for the helicopter propulsion. The differences between automotive functions devoted to hybridization and these possible in the case of a helicopter are explained. The different architectures (on turbine or on helicopter side) are reviewed and examples of possible applications on classical helicopters are given, not only the case of AH light helicopter autorotation management improver successfully tested in 2011. The requirements on the electrical system for industrial applications are reviewed: electrical motor and power electronics, cooling systems, energy storage. State of the art of Helicopter Hybrid Propulsion Christian Mercier Marc Gazzino Marc Mugnier Abstract — This document presents the state of the art of Helicopter Hybrid Propulsion. It gives the status of some possible architectures and conditions (technological, economical,…) for practical applications. More electrical helicopter, hybrid propulsion Introduction As done in the car industry, it can be envisaged replacing partly thermal energy necessary for helicopter propulsion and sustentation by electrical energy. Recent improvements on electrical technologies allow proposing electrical systems with attractive power to mass ratio to complement the thermal engine providing the mechanical power necessary for the helicopter propulsion. The differences between automotive functions devoted to hybridization and these possible in the case of a helicopter are explained. The different architectures (on turbine or on helicopter side) are reviewed and examples of possible applications on classical helicopters are given, not only the case of AH light helicopter autorotation management improver successfully tested in 2011. Complete replacement of the thermal engine by electric could be realistic only when the power to mass ratio of the electrical components will be at the right level, especially for energy storage, which is still far away. The requirements on the electrical system for industrial applications are reviewed: electrical motor and power electronics, cooling systems, energy storage. I. HYBRID CATEGORIES: What we call “hybridization” is the use of electrical energy to complement or replace thermal energy for propulsion. Power can be estimated between tens of kW to help the turbine gas generator to several hundreds of kW if we consider electric motor for rotor direct drive. By analogy to solutions existing in car industry, new propulsion architectures can be envisaged in helicopter to save fuel or increase power for propulsion and can be classified in several categories depending on electric power levels and organization of the power engines. Different levels of hybridization can be defined depending on the share of electric power for propulsion (fig1): - Microhybrid: electric energy is limited to around 50 kW and as such used on the turbine gas generator to give transient assistance (acceleration/deceleration capacities to better master the surge margins), get boost power…for example - Mild Hybrid means power input to the transmission up to around 300kW, either to the MGB for emergency power in case of turbine failure (improving autorotation of a Singler Engine helicopter for ex.) either to the rear rotor to make it full electric - Full Hybrid means higher electric power making some flight phases possible with only electric power (cruise for ex.) but not the entire flight; it results that thermal power is required for the other phases and a variety of architectures can be imagined mixing thermal power to produce electric energy, stored or not temporarily in batteries - Full electric means no thermal power on board for the whole flight, as in some well-known toys or UAVs And different organizations of power sources: - Parallel architecture: the electrical power channel provides mechanical power to the rotor in parallel to the thermal engine. - Serial architecture: the rotor is driven only by electrical motor; the electrical motor is supplied by a generator driven by a thermal engine. - Power split architecture: electrical motor is connected to the mechanical drive, allowing combination of both energies, adding for mechanical power boost by electric or subtracting to store mechanical energy to electric storage for example. A mix of these architectures can be implemented between main rotor and tail rotor. Fig1 II. SPECIFICS OF HYBRIDIZATION FOR HELICOPTERS COMPARED TO AUTOMOTIVE USE Hybridization on helicopters is different from hybridization on cars as usage and thus power needs strongly differ (fig2) . Fig2 On helicopters, the level of power required is much more stable as in cars and, in normal operating conditions, there is no flight phase of negative power. On cars, the level of required power strongly varies with the use phases: - High power needed for highway : use of thermal engine - Low power for city use: use of electric motor with the benefit of high torque at low speed allowing high accelerations - Kinetic energy recovery during braking resulting in fuel burn reduction, especially in city use It must be outlined that energy recovery from flight is not efficient in an aircraft. It could be used for faster descents but not for saving fuel.On the contrary to storing energy which is lost into heat in the case of car braking, recovery from flight energy (either kinetic or potential) is a degradation of energy (taking into account the efficiency of storage chain which is way lower than 100%); for example storing energy during autorotation to reuse it for smoother landing is a bad idea because it results in a faster descent… Nevertheless, helicopter specific characteristics / requirements (multi-engines, emergency situations, flight domain) may justify hybrid power generation solutions. Current estimates show that for conventional turbine architecture, further improvements may allow reducing fuel consumption by around 15% by 2020 but the optimization of the turbine is becoming more and more complex and as a consequence expensive. On helicopters, hybridization is not intrinsically green but could enable technologies for green innovation (like Diesel- cycle kerosene fuel piston engines with very low specific fuel burn used at their optimum running point) thus leading to further reductions of the fuel consumption. The main benefits of hybridization is giving new degrees of freedom and would allow - to optimize the power generation for all flight phases while it is today sized mainly to cope with constraints in limited flight phases (e.g. take-off or One Engine Inoperative mode) - to use different combinations of thermal engines (e.g. various small Diesel engines with electric generators electrically linked without the mechanical complexity of multiengine power) which would lead to an overall gain at helicopter level - to have a free choice of helicopter architecture (engine integration, rotors: e.g. elec.tail rotor) - to reduce the noise emission and improve the performance by increasing the available range of rotors rotational speed and decoupling main and antitorque rotor speeds. Contrary to car industry, all technical possible improvements leading to safety and environmental progress (like ABS, airbags, exhaust gases aftertreatment, …) are not yet imposed by regulations and thus do not reach the customer because they impact weight and cost in a competitive environment. In addition, the weight constraints on helicopters (which are the most demanding of all types of aircraft due to complex aeromechanical laws) are much more important than on cars. III. ELECTRIFICATION OF PROPULSION SYSTEM Helicopter propulsion is ensured by main rotor and tail rotor driven by one or several thermal engines. Gear boxes are used to adapt thermal engine output shaft speed to the main rotor and tail rotor speed. Up to now, this type of architecture is the one implemented in helicopters used with physical persons on board and this article deals with this “conventional helicopter” (main and rear rotors). Electrical propulsion exists for toys and UAVs. As for fixed wing aircrafts (several demonstrations already done), electrical propulsion solutions can be imagined for helicopters thanks to new technologies emerging in electric domain: electric motors, power electronics and energy storage. The key factor for the choice, definition and implementation of these hybrid propulsion architectures is the weight and efficiency of the electric system components. Generally, the electrical system consists in: energy storage device (battery of accumulators or super capacitors or inertial storage device for example), one or several electric motors associated with their power controller, control/monitoring device to manage the electric system in accordance with helicopter power management strategy. Power-to-mass ratios of these components are now in the range of several kW/kg and will increase in the future thanks to new material: SIC, GaN for power electronics, high temperature material for electric motors, new lithium technologies (Li-S, Li-Air) for energy storage. IV. SOME EXAMPLES Among a lot of possible architectures envisaged, some examples are given hereafter. For each architecture the main benefits and drawbacks are listed as well as technological status of electrical equipment available and of requirements on critical characteristics for a practical future application. A. Microhybrid on turbine for OEI30s boost: For lower powers an input of electrical power to the gas generator of the turbine (for the highest ratings like OEI30s) results in a greater output at the free turbine level and is more efficient than direct electric power to the transmission. This allows benefiting globally from a better performance for the helicopter; particularly it could be used in case the turbine is at its developments limits for reshuffling helicopter performance. Present available technology would allow such application. B. Engine Backup System (EBS) for Light Helicopter (mild hybrid): The supplemental electric system is used to increase maneuverability of a single-engine helicopter during an autorotation landing – which is performed by helicopters in the event of an engine failure: in fact an helicopter flies in autorotation descent and is fully maneuverable, which allows to land safely by applying techniques that single helicopters pilots know and are trained for. The additional electric motor provides power to the rotor, allowing the pilot to even better control the helicopter after engine failure and then to a safe touchdown. With the new system the manoeuver executed by the pilot in case of engine failure is identical to what all single engine pilots are used to. The difference is in the increased margins and the easiness of the procedure with the system. Thanks to the automatic system the reaction time is increased when the failure occurs because the rotor speed droop is slower. This avoids very low rotor speed and a too high descent rate in case of a delayed reaction of the pilot. At the end when landing the power delivered by the system allows stopping the aircraft much easier, to better choose the landing point and to control the ground touchdown much more easily. The technical characteristics of available motors and power electronics, and one-shot specific batteries are near to allow for a complete system with less than 50kg. Nevertheless, development cost and RC of such system cannot be valued at customer level (as an option for example) because of the loss in payload near to one pax in the absence of a regulatory constraint which would impose it for all manufacturers. Fig3 C. Mild hybrid with SIO or SEO Turbine Specific Fuel Consumption is minimum at high power. Idea is on a twin-engine helicopter, to put one turbine at the minimum possible idle (Super Idle Operation) or stop it (Single Engine Operation) to save fuel The mild hybrid complement to SIO (or SEO) mode consists in completing the required power level to sustain level flight without any drop of cruise speed. The electrical chain provides the additional power to sustain the level flight while the second turbine is running in SIO or SEO mode. Once the battery runs out of energy, the second turbine is restarted to provide both the power complement to sustain flight and the power to reload the battery. This architecture helps to save only some % of fuel consumption, with present data of electric systems, compared with conventional architecture, at the expense of complexity. Fig4 D. Electrical rear rotor (mild hybrid): The direct link in speed between turbine, main rotor and rear rotor which leads to difficult tradeoffs between performance and noise for example could disappear if the rear rotor is electrically driven. Also it seems optimal to drive directly this rotor by an electric motor, and with fixed pitch reverse thrust by reversing the rotation direction. Nevertheless inertial constraints, aerodynamics, safety requirements lead to additional weight of the order of magnitude of 1 pax which is unacceptable. In this case the distance to target for the electrical motor (with redundant architecture for safety reasons) is around a factor 5 for weight, not taking into account other detrimental elements like center of gravity backwards position of the system leading to another overweight compensation in the front part of the aircraft. Fig5 E. Serial with turbine (Full hybrid) The example of a single turbine helicopter of Ecureuil size is given, where the turbine is driven at its optimum SFC point so as to minimize fuel burn (whatever the flight case) and electric generator either produces current for the rotor’s electric motors either to store energy in a battery. So that the turbine sizing is minimal and the power complement needed for high power flight cases like takeoff is provided by the battery. By using today’s horizon assumptions regarding the electrical components, the empty weight penalty of this architecture is above 300 kg. On the aerial work mission for example, it is supposed that the turbine can reload the battery on the level flight segment only. However, the weight assessment of the propulsive chain (including the downsized turbine) is way too heavy and prevents the helicopter from carrying fuel at iso take-off weight! Electrical machines and power electronics are the key components of this architecture. The battery power density should be multiplied by at least 7 to get even with the current Ecureuil performance Downsizing of the turbine is not enough to compensate the strong empty weight penalty. This architecture has no future with the current electrical components characteristics forecasts. Fig 6 F. Full electric This architecture has been well known in the toys industry where small remote-controlled UAV are manufactured. However, due to the Froude theory and to other aeromechanical laws, a general rule of thumbs can be applied on the helicopter: dP/P≈1.1 dW/W where P is the required power and W is the weight of the helicopter. The main two differences between the toys industry and a real rotorcraft are: - the increase of required power is clearly not proportional to the increase of weight, due to the aeromechanical laws (factor 3 more at least!). - in addition, the battery and the electrical motor can occupy the whole space of the toy, whereas it is necessary to keep the same volume of cabin and layout to perform the missions for the real helicopter; the increase of required power is also clearly not proportional to the increase of volume (factor 14 more at least!). For both reasons (weight scale and volume constraint), it can be seen that if a 10-minute full electrical flight is possible on a small remote-controlled UAV (weighing less than 50 g) with the current battery technologies, the power and energy required are way too much for a 3-ton class rotorcraft aiming at 2 hours of endurance. Fig 7 V. THERMAL AND VOLUME CONSTRAINTS A. Thermal: A crucial point in hybridization is the cooling of electrical equipment: for short durations high densities power outputs as well for motor as power electronics but also for batteries entail high temperatures which they cannot bear thus a cooling system is required (with liquid and circulation pumps). Only for very short durations (less than 30s, emergency uses like EBS) this can be avoided with use of massic heat capacity for example. In the case of batteries this can represent additional weight to be added to the gas safety ventings and installation provisions (like supporting crash loads). B. Volume: In some cases the battery requires such a capacity that its volume (taking into account its “peripherals” like Battery Management System, internal/external harnesses, crashworthiness provisions, exhaust gases safety outlets, contactors…) presents a problem for installation because it competes with luggage or even passengers rooms. VI. DISTANCE TO TARGET Ragone plots show the global results of a comprehensive study of possible hybrid architectures’ requirements on main parameters of the electrical equipment (motors/power electronics, batteries) which have to be met at least for performing the same performance of the helicopter (payload,…) with additional benefits (fuel burn essentially). In red are plotted present physical characteristics of motor (triangle) and batteries (red and orange dots). In green the targets zones. We can see that we still are quite far from these targets, mainly because of the storage poor weight densities (power, energy, volume) which still need great improvements. Fig 8 VII. CONCLUSION Among a variety of hybrid architectures that could be imagined and analyzed taking into account recent progress of electric machinery and storage, mainly emergency electric power source emerges improving the controllability of the helicopter in case of turbine failure. Nevertheless the additional weight and cost of such system remain a bad fit for the customer, especially from an economical point of view. Very significant progress is still needed, especially for the storage device, the battery being the best fit but still far away from the weight/power ratio required for the helicopter which is the most demanding aircraft in terms of lightness. Targets have been defined, associated with specific architectures imagined, the identified benefits of which could be released when they are reached.

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Title of presentation runs here on two lines / Arial Regular 30 pt Subtitel goes here / Arial Regular 20 pt VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN The first purpose-built, electrically powered trainer aircraft AIRBUS Group – SAFRAN – ZODIAC 05/02/2015 - TOULOUSE VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France Agenda 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 2 History and Origin of the project E-Fan 2.0 objectives Partnership Requirements Challenges Electrical System Devices High Voltage Electrical System Skills Technical Challenges Electric Propulsion Challenges eFAN eIPS 2.0 Concept VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France The “E-FAN Family” concept 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 3 2017 World’s first fully electric four engine aerobatic plane First purpose-built electric powered training aircraft Industrialized version of E-FAN 1.0 => Electrization of a thermical plane => Flying test bed => Commercial version of a full-electrical training plane VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN 2.0: Main objectives & challenges • 4 objectives: ▫ Competitive aircraft Response to a market need for ab-initio trainings Competitive price in Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) ▫ Certifiable aircraft: regulatory acceptance of electric propulsion ▫ Aircraft suitable for production: structuring of an industrial sector ▫ Acceptability of new learning methods by all the stakeholders (teachers, pilots, regulatory authorities) • 4 challenges: 26/02/2015 4 Avion Thermal Aircraft Project goals Weight <600 kg (LSA certification) <600 kg (LSA** certification) TCO 100 à 120 €/h Less than 90 €/h (low energy cost, minimizing immobilization with low maintenance) Autonomy 4 - 5 hours 1h + 15 min for security reasons Availability 10 hours / day scheduled maintenance every 50h 5 hours / day (quick charge in 45 min) Yearly scheduled maintenance*** * Restricted certificate of airworthiness ** Light Sport Aircraft *** Based on the use of 300 hours per year E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France Towards production 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 5 E-FAN 1.0 Flying Demonstrator Design Pré- Industrialization E-FAN 2.0 June 2011 July 2014 2017 100% electrical engine 2 seats side-by- side Fixed gear Initial training Battery management system E-FAN 2.0 E-FAN 1.0 PSPC Creation of VoltAir, 100% Airbus Group Subsidiaries VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN 2.0: Partners 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 66 Consortium of 10 partners for industrial production • 6 industrial partners: Airbus Group (with Daher- Socata as key subcontractor), Zodiac Aerospace, Safran, ACS, Evtronic, Serma Technologies; • 4 research organizations / schools: CEA Tech, ENAC, ENSAM, ISAE, INSA. VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France ASTM 2840 26 February 2015 Presentation Title runs here (go to Header & Footer to edit this text) 7 This specification provides designers and manufacturers of electric propulsion for light sport aircraft design references and criteria to use in designing and manufacturing EPUs • This specification covers minimum requirements for the design and manufacture of Electric Propulsion Units (EPU) for light sport aircraft, VFR use. The EPU shall as a minimum consist of the electric motor, associated controllers, disconnects and wiring, an Energy Storage Device (ESD) such as a battery or capacitor, or both, and EPU monitoring gauges and meters. Optional onboard charging devices, in-flight charging devices or other technology may be included. • § 5 : Data requirement : data recorder & storing, drawings, reference, M&P, operating manuel, maintenance manuel • § 6 : Design Criteria : Material, Fire, Crash, vibration, SW • § 7 : Qualification tests : durability, endurance, reliability (for each component of EPU and for the EPU system) • § 8 : Manufacturing Requirements Applicable to Airbus Group, SAFRAN, ZODIAC VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France Example of Top Level Requirement TLR Regulatory requirements 6 Operating environment and limitations 7 Mission capability and performance 9 Physical characteristics 9 Cabin & comfort 8 Ergonomy/HMI 10 Safety 3 Reliability 7 Availability 1 Maintainability 5 Service life and utilization characteristics 5 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 10 Rescue and emergency equipment 1 Commercial options 2 26/02/2015 Regulatory : - MTOW = 600 kg (LSA) - Vs ≤ 83 km/h - Load Factor : Positive limit load factor : +4 g Negative limit load factor : -2 g - The system shall be designed for flight in heavy rain - Rate of climb at VY shall exceed 95 m/min (312 fpm) Market - Operating temperatures : ISA -30 to ISA +25 - Autonomy 1 hour + 15 min reserve - Nb Rotation : 6 per day - Average yearly utilization : 300 FH/year - Cabin size : fit with EU and US market - Heating system to ensure a cabin temperature of 15°C under an OAT of -10°C - Transition between thermal and electrical easy - No more than 30 min to remove or install Line Replaceable Units (LRU) - No additional calendar scheduled maintenance, except those mandated by A/C manufacturers VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN 2.0 : Main innovations & challenges 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 9 Area of work E-FAN 1.0 demonstrator Project innovations Challenges Energy storage Energy density: 100 Wh/kg 130 kg of Li-Ion batteries Energy delivered: 13 kWh Energy density > 200 Wh/kg 200 kg max of Li-Ion batteries Typical energy: 40 kWh Mechanical integration / Packaging Electrochemistry and Materials Intelligent energy management / Safety Recharge Slow recharge in about 2h Quick recharge in 45 min Heating / cooling batteries Preservation durability / safety Engine specification Electric motor and fan ducted Optimization of the propulsion system (efficiency, cooling, acoustic) Cooling and electromagnetism management Internal aerodynamics Noise control and management High energy density (approx. 5kW/kg on the pack) VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN 2.0 : Main innovations & challenges 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 10 Area of work E-FAN 1.0 demonstrator Project innovations Challenges Taxiing Remote engine with transmission to the wheel New system to integrate into a fixed gear Design / Integration motor/wheel Robustness and reliability under conditions of use IHM / Avionics Customization of a classic dashboard Modern cockpit compatible with the training demands and the transition to a thermal plane Ability to simplify the management of electric propulsion and autonomy Weight Current weight: 650 kg (incl. 130 kg of batteries) Weight to reach: 600 kg incl. 200 kg of batteries (reduction of 120 kg) Batteries mass: 200 kg max Lighter engines, structure and system Aircraft system No redundancy or system reconfiguration Combine the high requirements of reliability and security with high mass and cost constraints Complex system in a constrained environment VoltAir SAS au capital de 4 000 000 €, 803 675 628 R.C.S. BORDEAUX , Siège social : 25, rue Marcel Issartier, BP20005, 33702 Mérignac Cedex, France ZODIACAEROSPACEWP 26/02/2015 E-FAN:Developmentofanelectrically-poweredaircraft 11 ©ZodiacAeroElectric.Allrightsreserved.Confidentialandproprietarydocument. ZODIAC AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Zodiac Aero Electric - 12 ZODIAC AEROSPACE PACKAGEZODIAC AEROSPACE PACKAGE 1. Energy Storage Device (ESD): Including cells, Battery Management System , Continuous load evaluation , packaging & assembly Activities: Design, protoptype assembly , testing in flight and on ground for the battery charger functton Suppor AGI for the certification activities 2. High voltage electrical system : High voltage distribution system (270 VDC & 350VDC) Activities: Design, protoptype assembly and testing Suppor AGI for the certification activities Competencies to develop : Acquire a global understanding of a full electrical A/C - (support the trade off s leaded by AGI/Socata) Acquire a first experience in hpw certified a a full electrical A/C Develop a battery system integreting COTS cells ©ZodiacAeroElectric.Allrightsreserved.Confidentialandproprietarydocument. ZODIAC AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Zodiac Aero Electric - 13 CHALLENGESCHALLENGES Energy Storage Device : 1. Worldwide benchmark and selection of the Cells 2. Performances des cellules disponibles à ce jour (densité d’énergie) 3. Safety 4. Accuracy of the continuous load evaluation 5. Mechanical Integration directly in the wing box : High voltage electrical distribution system 1. HVDC level 2. HVDC integration (EMI, Safey , short circuit protection) VoltAir SAS au capital de 4 000 000 €, 803 675 628 R.C.S. BORDEAUX , Siège social : 25, rue Marcel Issartier, BP20005, 33702 Mérignac Cedex, France 26/02/2015 E-FAN:Developmentofanelectrically-poweredaircraft 14 VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France - 15 PROPULSION CHALLENGESPROPULSION CHALLENGES Electrical Motor Mass and Performance Integration Cooling Power Electronics Mass and Performances Integration Cooling Ducted Fan Mass and Aero Dynamic Performances Integration Speed Nacelle Mass and Aero Dynamic Performances Integration VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France - 16 eFAN eIPS 2.0 ConcepteFAN eIPS 2.0 Concept Reliable, Cost Improved Solution Low Drag Nacelle Advanced Aircooled Integrated Electronics and Electrical Motor 2 Synchronous Brushless Electrical Motors High Efficiency Distributed Power Electronics High Aerodynamic Efficiency Fan Easy Maintenance Project Management Electrical Motor Power Electronics FAN and Aerodynamics Nacelle Integration and Assembly Title of presentation runs here on two lines / Arial Regular 30 pt Subtitel goes here / Arial Regular 20 pt VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France Thanks for your attention AIRBUS Group : emmanuel.joubert@airbus.com SAFRAN : christophe.claisse@safran.com ZODIAC : Thierry.RougeCarrassat@zodiacaerospace.com

Oral session 3 Inserting new technologies into programmes (Jean-Charles Maré)

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This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. MEA 2015 Conference O3-3 APU on More Electrical Aircraft : a vision for the future SAFRAN – MICROTURBO Jean-Francois RIDEAU, Stéphane VAILLANT, Fabien SILET, Bernard BLANC 1 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT • Aircelle • Messier-Bugatti-Dowty • Hispano-Suiza • Labinal Power Systems DEFENSE • Sagem SECURITY • Morpho AEROSPACE PROPULSION • Snecma • Herakles • Turbomeca • Microturbo • Techspace Aero SAFRAN GROUP COMPANIES SAFRAN GROUP MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 2 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Microturbo, over 50 years experience in APU market 60’s Small turbo engines for military purpose 60’s-00’s 2009-2013 2011 - 2014 Involvement in most of major military and sovereign programs for fighter aircrafts, anti-ship & cruise missiles and H/C Development of the eAPU 60 for the civilian H/C market Partnership with PWA on business jets Microturbo products & programsThe European leader in APU and turbojet engines 2015 Tier one Auxiliary Power Units APUs for airplanes and helicopters APUs for ground applications Turbojet engines for missiles and UAVs Engine Starters and Starting Systems Key Figures Revenue of $138 Million in 2014 More than 600 people 3 sites: Toulouse (HQ), San Diego and Dallas 130 Engineers and Technicians 10% of turnover invested in R&T Integrated manufacturing capabilities (250 people) Falcon 5X and Global 7000/8000 programs handled by Microturbo APU LLC MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 3 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Safran is committed to offer a wide range of products within the chain of energy Commercial aircraft Engines Silvercrest Engine nacelles Landing systems Braking & landing systems Electrical systems Power Transmission Avionics and navigation systems EGTS - the Electric Green Taxiing System Group companies involved in propulsion & equipment Auxiliary Power Units INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS FOR OPTIMIZED ENERGY CHAIN MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 4 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. MICROTURBO Answer to More Electrical Aircraft Challenge More Electrical Aircraft Architecture implies Global Energy Chain Thinking Better System integration, Aircraft Operability Optimisation MICROTURBO intents to be a player in this More Electrical Aircraft Challenge APU Gas Turbine Provider Power On Demand System Provider APU System Provider 5 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Actual APU Functions as ATA49 Classical APU Functions On Ground Power supply Pneumatic and Electric Main Engine Start Bleed Air to the ECS System In flight Power Supply Pneumatic and Electric In case on Main Engine Generator Failure Specific Type Certificate « CS APU »(US « TSO-C77b) Cat 2 : Ground Use – Cat 1 : Flight Use (Icing, Ingestion, Starting system, Automatic shutdown) Limited number of system carrying their own Type Certificate (Aircraft CS – 23/25, Engine CS – E, APU CS – APU, Propeller CS – P, Helicopters CS – 27/29) MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 6 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. APU Architectures and technologies Gas Turbine APU Technologies Core EgnineGearbox Air (Kg/s) kVA Bleed APU kVA Bleedless APU MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 7 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. APU Architectures and technologies e_APU60 A More Electrical APU Proven Technology S/G Electrical Fuel System FADEC Technology Remaining Steps Electrical Oil System Embedded S/G (TRL9 at MT for P<5kW) Energy Harvesting Electrically Self sustaining System 8 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. e-APU60 for AGUSTA WESTLAND AW189 Main characteristics APU Operation : up to 20 kft Temperature : -50 to +60 °C Bleed flow rate : 17 lb/mn (0.13kg/s) Bleed pressure : 50 psia (3.4 bars) Power rating: Up to 60kVA Mass : 121lbs L x W x H : 17x14x14 inches Civil certified EASA CS APU cat 1 FAA TSO C77B cat 1 e-APU60 Bleedless APU for more electrical aircraft compact, high power density MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 9 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. From APU provider to System Provider System integration capabilities Acquisition of competencies outside of the classical Turbine scopeInlet/exhaust Inlet/Exhaust aerodynamic Noise reduction Piloted Air Inlet Door Mounts/Struts Dal A Fadec Critical function High Altitude Operation 51000 ft MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 10 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. 10 APU Exhaust (i.e. noise suppressor) Air Inlet / APU Composite APU fixtures (struts, fixations) Inlet Door + Actuator (controlled by the FADEC) Collar Eductor From APU provider to System Provider System integration capabilities Tail Cone Test Rig Tail Cone Test Rig Test Rig Control Room MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 11 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. APS2[800] For Bombardier Global 7000/8000 Industry Leading Altitude Start and Power capability APS2[800] MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse Designed for the Ultra Long Range Biz Jet market High Efficiency Compressor providing unmatched bleed and shaft power capability Two Stage high efficiency and low noise turbines DA718 turbine disks for high strength and low weight Proven reliability > 8000 MTBF ETOPS 60 kVA to 45k ft 12 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. From APU System to Power on Demand System The Power On Demand System extends the APU concept up to non- propulsive power generation over the whole flight domain, simplifying aircraft architecture. Meets customers needs of sizing differently aircraft engines & architecture. Offers “à la carte” solutions adaptable for Business Jet up to Long Range Commercial Aircraft in the Power Range of 50kW up to 1.5MW for : Normal flight mode ‒ Take Off ‒ Climb ‒ Descent Emergency mode A Game changer Improvement of aircraft architecture energetic efficiency Optimization of main engine load shedding through active power on board management Reduction of the environmental footprint PODS MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 13 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. PODS Technology Differentiator Where Differentiation comes from Technology Power Weight Ratio -40% at system Level Extended Use of 3D Printing Embedded Generator ACARE 2050 Compatibility Low noise by design High Performance Acoustic Treatment Ground Pollution Control High Altitude Starting Capability 47,000+ feet starting capability Energy availability at high altitude MTBF > 10.000OH Cross ATA 49/24/21 PODS Cross ATA Design and Optimization Multi system Compatibility SMART GRID Compatibility FC and other thermal Engine in POD System MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 14 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Microturbo a step forward on 3D Printing Safran Microturbo – Innovation at play First Fully 3D Printed Engine MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 15 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Microturbo a step forward on 3D Printing Safran Microturbo – Innovation at play First Fully 3D Printed Engine MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse Redesign Mass 1, 45kg -43% This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. 16 /

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More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 04 February 2015 Toulouse Peter Glöckner Schaeffler Group – BU Aerospace More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 1 1 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 1 2 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 2 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group 3 “Together we move the world” More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group 4 In million euros 2009 7,336 2010 9,495 2011 10,694 2012 11,125 2013 11,205 Proportion in % Asia/Pacific Europe South America North America 56 16 5 23 Structure in effect until December 31, 2013 Employees Sales (FY 2013) 168 locations worldwide: More than 80,000 worldwide: € 11.2 billion in 49 countries More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group 5 Europe Greater China Asia/Pacific Americas Corporate Units IndustrialAutomotive Regions: Business Units More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group – Automotive Division 6 Sensor wheel bearing units Tapered roller bearings Tandem angular contact ball bearings TappetsCamshaft phasing units Finger followers with hydr. pivot elements Needle roller bearings OAP Chain tensioning systems McPherson strut bearings Shifting systems Lightweight balancer shafts with rolling brg. supports Toothed chains for primary drives Ball screw drives Torque converters Clutch release systems Dual mass flywheels SAC Double clutch systems dry/wet Clutch linings Transmission components AllrightsreservedforSchaefflerTechnologiesGmbH&Co.KG,especiallyifindustrialpropertyrightsaregranted. Engine and transmission components Components for clutch and transmission systems Wheel modules and transmission bearings Wheel bearings with face spline Deep groove ball bearings More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group – Industrial Division 7 Linear technology Tapered roller bearings Ball bearings Needle roller bearings Spherical roller bearings Cylindrical roller bearings Off-Highway Motorcycles Fluid and Pneumatics Renewable Energies Aerospace Heavy Industries Power Transmission Consumer Products / Medical Systems Railway Production Machinery More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Special Bearing Systems for Aerospace Applications 8 Main shaft and gearbox bearing supports, e.g. for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and Airbus A 380 Gearbox, swash plate, and transmission shaft bearings for helicopters High-precision bearings in the joints of the robotic arm of the Phoenix Mars lander Special bearings for rocket engines, e.g. turbo pump bearings (Space Shuttle) and cross pin bearings (Ariane 5) More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 9 1 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Motivation 10 Motivation: Reduction in Fuel Burn, Emissions & Noise Minimum 50% Reduction in Fuel Burn and Emissions Geared Fan Recuperating Aero Engines (with heat exchanger) Todays Modern Aero Engines Advanced Aircraft Configurations Fuel Burn - Level 2000 2030 Technologies 20-35% New Engines 20% New Aircraft Config's 10% ATM Air Traffic Management (ATM) Open Rotor More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 1 2 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 11 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. 40% Weight & Power Loss Reduction Integrated Bearing Designs Advanced Bearing Cooling Systems New Materials, Coatings & Surface Technologies Advanced Bearing Analysis High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems Integrated Outer Ring Cooling System Integrated Shaft / Bearing Modules Ceramic Rolling Elements Optimized Surfaces Diamond Like Coatings on Rolling Elements Calculation of Shaft / Gear / Bearing Systems Rolling Contact Stressing Calculation Multi-Body-Calculation 12 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 1 2 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 13 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 14 Schaeffler Automotive : Covering the full range of powertrain and chassis electrification: High Efficient Electromechanical Systems for the Automotive Industry eWheel Electric Axle Drive Hybrid Module Hybrid Module Active Roll Control System (ARC) More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 15 Transfer of the Passenger Car eWheel Technology into Aircraft: eTaxi 1 2 3 5 4 1 2 3 Liquid cooling Technical data ► Torque: 525 Nm cont. / 850 Nm peak ► Power: 38,5 kW cont. / 60 kW peak ► Weight: approx. 66 kg ► Dimensions: approx. Ø 419 mm x 184 mm 4 5 Power electronics E-machine Friction brake Wheel bearing More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 16 Average taxi-time per day (minutes) Airbus A320 6,799 total deliveries (10,504 family) 3,697 firm order backlog (6,132 family) Transfer of the Passenger Car eWheel Technology into Aircraft: eTaxi Example: 0 50 100 150 Source: EUROCONTROL, US Department of Transportation, Aircraft Commerce, IATA, Airbus Note: *As of 30 June 2014 • Average estimated fuel saving per taxiing & a/c: 13 kg/min • Average taxi-time per day & a/c: 95 min • Average estimated fuel saving per day & a/c1): 1.2 t • Average estimated fuel saving per year & a/c2): US$ 200,000 1) electric power consumption and increased airplane weight not considered 2)US$/bbl = 70 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 17 Transfer of the Passenger Car Active Roll Control (ARC) Technology into MEA Stab bar Rubber decoupling clutch Planetary transmission eMotor Integrated ECU Torque Sensor Cable Stab bar Technical description • Nominal voltage 12V • Æ90 x 392 mm (without bars) • Total weight 11,8 kg (w/o bars & cables) • Nominal 900 Nm, peak 1.200 Nm • Ramp-up speed 900 Nm at 200 ms • Torque accuracy at life time 40 Nm (4%) • ASIL A More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 18 Transfer of the Passenger ARC Technology into MEA Without ARC With ARC • Significantly improved comfort by Ø reduction of vehicle body roll at cornering Ø reduction of copy movements at poor roads • Safety improvements due to reduction of over steering • Improved vehicle dynamics and agility at any speed • Enables differentiation of platforms from main stream General benefits of the ARC • CO2 reduction by 8g /100km*) due to power-on-demand • High actuator dynamics (900Nm / 0,2s) • High torque accuracy over lifetime • Plug-and-play – easy handling and assembly • Maintenance-free Benefits of the Schaeffler ARC *) 0,3l/100km More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 19 Transfer of the ARC Technology into Aircraft Concept Case: Actuation of Slats and Flaps State of the Art Hydraulic Flap Actuation System: • Rotary or ball screw actuators • Symmetrical deployment of flap panels • "Easy to Lock" in case of asymmetry or power loss • Many mechanical components in the drive system (joints, gearboxes, bearings etc.) • No individual actuation of each single high lift surface possible Power Control Unit (PCU) actuators gearboxes inboard transmission shaft More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 20 Transfer of the Passenger ARC Technology into Aircraft Concept Case: Distributed Actuation of Slats and Flaps Distributed Electromechanical Actuation System: • Elimination of central hydraulic motor and mechanical drive systems • Individual actuation of each single high lift surface possible, which allows for greater functionality Ø Varying wing profile options lead to improved lift distribution and reduced drag during cruise Ø Vortex decay due to individual deflection Ø Can compensate left / right wing fuel imbalance or OEI conditions Ø Adjustment of the Center of Lift in order to reduce wing bending moment in overload cases inboard Electromechanical Roll Control Unit as Flap Actuator • Potential use as actuator in distributed flap actuation systems Ø high torque, torque acceleration, and torque accuracy Ø high reliability Ø low weight More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 21 1 2 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Summary 22 • Advanced mechanical aerospace bearing systems can be leveraged and incorporated in new electromechanical aerospace systems • Automotive modules such as the eWheel and the ARC present potential for Transfer into MEA • The eWheel technology is a potential solution for direct electric landing gear drive (eTaxi) • The ARC system presents a possible option for a distributed flap actuation system Advanced aerospace bearing systems and new electromechanical systems derived from automotive applications can contribute to more efficient and reliable MEA More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. 23 Thank you for your attention! Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft

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www.thalesgroup.com This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems16/02/2015 MEA 2015 Toulouse Electrical Power Generation and Start Solution for the Falcon F5X Program F Biais F Delhasse P Thalin 2 /2 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Electrical Power Generation and Start Solution for F5X ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Content 1/ Background on electric start: DC to AC start 2/ F5X generation and start solution 3 /3 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Electric start by DC machines Electric start of engines is widely used, based on 28 Vdc starters or starter/generators: business jet engines - commuter aircraft engines - APU turbines 4 /4 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Introduction of Variable Frequency AC Generators Variable Frequency Generators directly driven by the engine Gearbox (constant speed drive removed) combined with Power converter performances Makes possible the replacement of the engine air start by brushless 3-stage AC generator start (operating as a synchronous motor supplied by a converter) 5 /5 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Thales demonstrations of electric start by brushless 3-stage AC generator Based on its experience on brushless 3-stage AC generators and “autosynchronous” motors and control Thales demonstrated back in 1995 the AC electric start by a brushless 3- stage generator 6 /6 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram 1st demonstration of electric start by brushless 3-stage AC generator In 1995 an off-the-shelf air-cooled 115 VAC 30 kVA 12000 rpm generator was modified so as to operate in motor mode in low speed range (0 to idle): Exciter modified to operate as a transformer • Rotor position sensor introduced to enable autosynchronous control • Supply of the 3-phase main stator with flux weakening capability and the main exciter by a converter A turboprop engine was successfully started by this modified generator. ~ 7 /7 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Challenges for the brushless 3-stage starter-generator to operate in both starting and generating modes Exciter: The same exciter must be capable of operating in two different modes: In generating mode: is excited by GCU DC current, operates as a synchronous machine, and delivers the power to the main rotor from mechanical power In starting mode: is supplied by AC converter, provides full AC power to the exciter rotor through transformer effect Main stator: In generating mode: provides electric power meeting voltage standards constraints In motoring mode: provides torque within converter current constraints Cooling: Oil or air flow rate is reduced during starting sequence at low speed > challenge on rotating diodes 8 /8 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Development of a high power Starter Generator (MEGEVE) In 2005 an oil-cooled 200 kVA starter-generator demonstrator was developed by Thales: • Including “hybrid” exciter with both generating and starting functions • Including position sensor Generating and starting modes were validated Various starting control laws were incorporated and tested. 130 kW 9 /9 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Development of a high power Starter Generator (MEGEVE) • Starting sequences were tested • Thermal behavior during starting sequence was analyzed on the instrumented Starter generator (stator, and also rotor through tele-transmission) Temperature on stator winding, exciter winding and rotating diodes time (s) time (s) temperatures(°C) temperatures(°C) rotating diodes AC exciter DC exciter Main stator end turns and slots 10 /10 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Development of an embedded high power Permanent Magnet Starter Generator in Rolls Royce engine (POA program) A 150 kW (Gen) / 175 kW (Start) embedded Permanent magnet generator was developed and tested in a RR engine (on HP shaft). Integration challenge of a PM machine in harsh environment Starting and generating operation were validated Embedded stator immersed in cooling oil with ceramic sleeve separation Rotor on High pressure shaft 11 /11 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales FALCON F5X Generation and start solution ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Challenges addressed during these advanced developments • Optimization of double operation of the exciter • Machine cooling during start phase • Optimization of kVA rating of main and auxiliary converter Complete generation and start solution TopStartTM proposed for the new Dassault Falcon F5X 12 /12 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales FALCON F5X Generation and start solution ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Falcon F5X : Thales generation and start solution 2 x main Starter Generators 115 V, air cooled Start the Snecma Silvercrest engine 1 APU Starter Generator 115 V, air cooled Start the PW APU turbine 3 GCU 13 /13 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales FALCON F5X Generation and start solution ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Falcon F5X : Thales generation and start solution 1 Start box Delivers AC power to the APU Starter/Generator from Battery through DC/DC boost converter Delivers AC power to the Main Starter/Generator from Ground Power Unit / Main Starter Generator /APU through rectifier Air cooled (-55°C to +70°C)

Oral session 4 Fuel Cells for More Electric Aircraft (Xavier Roboam, Frank Thielecke)

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This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY Integration of fuel cell system for aeronautical applications Dr François Moser, Dr T. Hordé, Dr F. Boudjemaa SAFRAN/SNECMA Space engine division MEA 2015 / 5th February 2015 / 1 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION Integration of FCS into aircraft Maturated-equipment for development program (TRL6)  Works are still to be done to mature FC technologies for aeronautic applications MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 FC Stack FCESS NfH2 Alim ANODE REGULATION NfH2 Alim CATHODE REGULATION Thermal manage ment System design Certification Integration Safety Design to cost Design to weight RAMSmission location interfaces Power requirement Waste managementC/C 2 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY  V-type development life cycle AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS FOR FCS CERTIFICATION MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 AIR 6464 / EUROCAE ED-219 “Hydrogen Fuel Cells Aircraft analysis Fuel cell Safety Guidelines” FCS component qualification FCS certification FCS qualification CS25 “Certification specification for large aeroplane” PDR S/S PDR S/S CDR SS CDR ARP4754  Guidelines For Development Of Civil Aircraft and Systems ARP4761  Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment MIL-STD-704-F  Aircraft Electrical Power Characteristics AIR-1168  Aerothermodynamic Systems Engineering and Design AIR-2000  Aerospace Fluid System Standards DO-178  Software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification DO-254  Design assurance guidance for airbone electronic hardware S/S to be validate: - Stack - thermal management S/S - Reactive alimentation S/S - C/C - mechanical, electrical interfaces ED14/DO-160G  Environmental Conditions and test Procedures for Airborne Equipment 3 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY Examples of guidelines - Robust to single failure + uncontrolled fire on aircraft level is extremely improbable - HP H2/O2 storages shall be treated similarly regarding safety analysis - Bottle burst to be extremely improbable by combining qualification and design  Design for safety: “how making a safe O2/H2/e- system for aircraft?” MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS FOR FCS CERTIFICATION O2 standard known for aeronautic  CS 25 H2 standard to be found for H2 storage sub-system.  SAE AIR 6464  EN 12245 (DOT-CFFC) targerted for HP H2(O2) bottles (High TRL) FC Stack NfH2 Alim ANODE REGULATION NfH2 Alim CATHODE REGULATION Examples of risk mitigation - Energetic source segregation, FCS ventilation - Fire resistance proofness (TPRD + venting line) - Functions of control and security have to be separated 4 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IMPACTS FCS DESIGN  Cathode alimentation  Mission/cycle : long mission (compressor); short mission (O2 tank)  Location : air cabin, atmosphere  Life time  fuel cell stack size, reactive purity (filtering) MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 APU 50 - 200 kW 50 kg H2 Entertainment ~30 kW 10 kg H2 Special aircraft ~15 kW 10 kg H2 RAT ~15 kW 1 kg H2 Galleys ~30 kW 10 kg H2 J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol. 2010;8(1):011014-011014-7. doi:10.1115/1.4002400 5 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS IMPACT FCS DESIGN  Operational conditions (DO-160)  Mechanical solicitations (vibration, shocks)  Shock absorber : mechanical design compliance  Thermal environment [-55°C ; +85°C]  Ground survival conditions  Pressure [0.1 ; 1.088] bar abs  Ground conditions  On-board conditions MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 Altitude 0,6 - 1 bar 0,75 bar 0,75 bar 0,75 bar < 0,2 bar41000ft 8000ft ground inboard External cond.  Impact on structure design, alimentation design of FCS and component (gas pressure regulator, air compressor, gasket and coolant) FC Stack NfH2 Alim ANODE REGULATION NfH2 Alim CATHODE REGULATION 6 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY FUEL CELL SYSTEM LOCATION OPTIONS Fuel cell system location onto an aircraft MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 FC Stack FCESS NfH2 Alim ANODE REGULATION NfH2 Alim CATHODE REGULATION Thermal manageme nt  The localization of FCS on airplane would be mainly influenced by the relative proximity between FC hardware and public  Different options :  FCS near to the load  FCS in tail cone  FCS in fairing  The issues that influence the choice  Availability space  Safety  Tubing, wire mass & volume  Rejection of waste  FC waste heat 7 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY FUEL CELL & AIRCRAFT SPECIFICITIES Fuel cell system location onto an aircraft  Thermal management  Waste heat from depleted-air and cooling loop  Thermal power to evacuate depends on FCS electric performance (stack design) & operational condition (H2 purity, temperature, pressure)  Design of cooling loop ‒ Air cabin: limitation by ECS ‒ Exterior air: external temperature variation with altitude, no control of air flow rate ‒ Specific Equipment: power regulation depends on mission profile  Specific exchanger design vs localization  /!\ Compatibility coolant vs operational temperature MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 FC Stack Cooling loop Cold source from airplane 8 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FCS INTEGRATION  Optimizations of FCS design and location vs application  Equipment integration (design) into aircraft = certification specification  Safety assessment early in development phase  Operational environment  Integration requirements  Automotive-based fuel cell system solutions could not be adapted to aeronautical environment  Specific development  Energetic source segregation  H2 fuel cell standards under evolution  System and component development needed MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY 9 / SAFRAN’s fuel cell activities /02/ MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 10 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP SAFRAN – HYDROGEN POWER UNIT PEM-HT 5 kWe Ground demo PEM-HT 5 kWe H2 Storage 350 bar GGH2 solide PEM-HT 50kWe PEM-HT 12 kWe 2014 2018 2025-20302020 PEM-HT 2,5kWe GGH2 (solid) H2 Storage Type IV – 350 bar Sub-systems Systems and products Stack FC 2016 Air Compressor Environmental- Navigability EUROCAE – aeronautical certification AFNOR – H2 and FC standardization Military directives – logistic – Airport installations EPU non critical EPU critical MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 11 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY COMPETENCIES @ SAFRAN MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 COMPETENCIES @ SAFRAN ON FCS Certification Safety System Equipment 12 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY SAFRAN DEVELOPS SPECIFIC FC EQUIPMENTS  HT-PEMFC stack coupling with GGH2 (solid-based)  HT-PEMFC flexible to H2 impurities, thermal management  Solid GGH2 = more safe than HP bottle, manipulation  HT-PEMFC + GGH2 = compact system  Metallic HT-PEMFC stack (500cm²)  SAFRAN’s design proprietary  5kW H2/air 160°C (2kg/kW)  Ageing tests under investigation  TRL5 (2015) MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 Metallic HT-PEMFC 500cm² stack ©SAFRAN ©SAFRAN ©SAFRAN 13 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 14 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY FUEL CELL EXPERIENCES IN SAFRAN  Synergy with Space activities & competences:  Fuel cell experiences :  System design & tests: PEMFC & SOFC (electric & MFFC)  Power Range: from 300 W to 70 kW  Reactants: (H2/O2) direct or (reformat H2/Air), with gasoline fuel processing, ethanol kerosene, LPG, NG…  Hydrogen production experiences (Fuel Processing and GGH2):  Hydrocarbon Fuel Processor : NG, LPG and low sulfur kerosene  Solid Hydrogen – hydrolysis and thermolysis MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 Design & Integration of complex systems (hydraulics- thermal- mechanics) Handling quantities of hydrogen & oxygen Availability of wide & secured test area (130 ha)

Oral session 5 Products & Technologies Advances (Hervé Morvan)

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This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. Power electronics and motor control Key competencies for aircraft electrical systems competitiveness MEA 2015, 5th February 2015, Toulouse Sebastien VIEILLARD 1 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. AGENDA To manage the electrical chain within the electrical system Potential benefits and examples of the electrical chain importance EMI Control law Former and current power electronics developments of LPS Overview of technology research efforts Power electronics integration Thermal management High temperature Conclusion CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 2 / To manage the electrical chain within the electrical system /01/ CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 3 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. TO IMPROVE THE ELECTRICAL CHAIN COMPETITIVENESS LPS intent is to offer and share these developed strengths with the system supplier/customer to build together a well-fitted solution The electrical chain is an important contributor to the global weight, cost and performances of the system The electrical chain shall be addressed globally and not just be a sum of electrical equipment LPS intent is to address this complex theme through different and complementary activities Theses identified ways are the following : To deal with performances and constraints at the electrical chain level To master the up to date technologies and competencies development To capitalize on LPS aircraft former development and on field feedback CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 4 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. Power Electronics THE ELECTRICAL CHAIN PERIMETER Electrical network M Electrical chain perimeter Electrical machine Harnesses In any case, an electrical chain approach is needed to propose to the system owner a better solution (at technical, risk and cost points of view) System conversion & control System perimeter Overview of the electrical chain perimeter LPS can directly address the whole electrical chain : power conversion, harnesses and machine electrical definition Depending of systems and customers, the whole electrical machine design and manufacturing can be included within the perimeter of the electrical chain delivery CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 5 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL CHAIN ACTIVITIES The biggest lever to optimize any system design is to understand and challenge the customer needs However it requires the good level of skills to challenge the needs and propose acceptable alternate performances or solutions Two important research axes have been identified to develop our capabilities to challenge the customer needs at system level: The ElectroMagnetic Interference design and modeling The Electrical chain and its associated control modeling and optimization CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 6 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTROMAGNETIC DESIGN APPROACH To deal with EMI at the electrical chain level is important to: Offer a relevant EMI global design: An EMI design dealt equipment by equipment has 2 main risks : ‒ Non compliance (=> Design iteration => Cost increase) ‒ Over specification ( => over design => weight increase) To specify correctly the different equipments Maximum dV/dt or peak voltage applied on the machine, depends on power electronics and harnesses design Machine leakage capacitor versus thermal behavior capability Etc… EMI Noise propagation paths CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 7 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. EMI STUDIES ON COMPLETE POWER CHAIN This approach, led by LPS on different electrical system demonstrators, have shown promising results. Correlation enables now to propose an EMI design tools for the LPS engineering team. The major components of the electrical are modeled to define at the early design stage an appropriate system solution The accuracy and the knowledge on each components is heterogeneous, research and thesis are on progress to try to harmonize it CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 8 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL CHAIN MODELING AND CONTROL OPTIMIZATION To develop accurate and quick electrical chain model enables to: Consolidate/Validate the customer performances Perform close loop iteration between power electronics definition, harnesses, motor design and system performances Define a compromise between power electronics, harnesses and machine to define a global optimum and not a collection of optimized equipment (at identical customer needs) 0 20 40 60 80 0 1 2 3 4 x 10 4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Speed (RPM) Torque (N.m) Phasecurrent(A) This approach, applied by LPS on a demonstrator, has reduced of 50 % power electronics design constraints, and 30 to 40 % more the nominal stress on the electrical chain design CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 9 / LPS power electronics developments and experience /02/ CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 10 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ETRAS® (Electrical Thrust Reverser Actuation System) Power converter Power controller ETRAS® A380 : The first electrical thrust reverser actuation system in the world Partnership Labinal Power Systems and Honeywell Fitted to nacelles made by Aircelle (Safran group) for the GP7200 and Trent 900 engines offered on the A380 In production, ETRAS® has logged over 3, 200, 000 hours of operation (as of September 2014) C919 Electrical Thrust Reverser Actuation System A work in synergy with fellow Safran companies for Aircelle: Aircelle: Architecture and equipment integration in the nacelle, Sagem DAV : Thrust Reverser actuation system, Labinal Power Systems : TRCU (Thrust Reverser Control Unit). TRCU: an innovative electronic power converter Control the thrust reverser actuation system of the COMAC C919 Nacelle developed by Nexcelle (Aircelle/GE Joint Venture) Based on key-enabling technologies and experience with the ETRAS® system for the A380 C919 Thrust Reverser Control Unit PROPULSION SYSTEM: NACELLE CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 11 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. LANDING AND BRAKING SYSTEMS Electrical Braking Actuation Controller Messier Bugatti Electrical Brake The first electrical braking system in the world developed for civil application by Messier-Bugatti Labinal Power Systems supplies the Electrical Braking Actuation Controller EBAC is used with Messier-Bugatti electric brakes for the Boeing 787 4 EBAC units control braking on the main gear’s 8 wheels. EBAC (Electrical Braking Actuation Controller) – EBMA (Electrical Back-up Mechanical Actuator) CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 12 / Overview of technology research efforts /03/ CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 13 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. HIGH INTEGRATION POWER ELECTRONICS High efforts are done to increase the power density of LPS power electronics Introduction of new technologies (Films capacitor, new material for filters, Silicone carbide for power switches…) are strongly linked to electrical , thermal and mechanical integration issues. Integration effort done by LPS are continuous and the next step of demonstrator will target the 12 kW/kg A first power converter has been designed for AC/DC, DC/DC and DC/AC conversions at voltages up to 800VDC. Featuring a modular design, for easy rack mounting in electrical cabinets, this line-replaceable unit (LRU) can operate in individual and parallel mode to control very high- power loads. Output power: 45 kW continuous (150 A peak) Efficiency : 99% at 15kHz (silicon carbide technology) Operating temperature range: -55°C / 90°C (cold plate) Power density : 9kW/kg for this demonstrator CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 14 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT (1/2) Power electronics cooling is challenging regarding: Weight consideration Reliability impact Cost impact Thermal management is addressed from equipment up to components level At stand alone equipment level, two types of cooling are clearly targeted Natural air cooling Forced Air cooling With integrated fan at heatsink level CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 15 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT (2/2) CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 All the layers of the cooling system are worked: 16 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER ELECTRONICS Discrete packaging HT inverter Innovative material study for packaging Discret component for drivers board HT laminate Polyimide PCB Used more HT Silicon component Low integration performance: 4.7 L MCPM packaged HT inverter High integration power core: 1.5L High reliability SiHT and SOI components High temperature conductive glue attach Thick Film and LTCC ceramic substrates HT inverter target 20A sinus HVDC 200°C maximal baseplate operation ACCITE project targets: 5kVA 200 C MCPM core integrated onto motor ©Valeo The LPS high temperature power electronics capability will enable to answer to high integration & temperature constraints raised by our customers CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 17 / Conclusion /04/ CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 18 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. CONCLUSION Electrical chain optimization is a key point of system competitiveness LPS attempts to address this key competencies through the combination of: Power electronics and machine experiences Electrical chain engineering skills R&T strong efforts Industrial mindset Through this amount of skills and available technologies and with active exchanges with our customer, LPS will be pleased to propose and deliver more competitive power electronics products CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015

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www.tttech.com Jacques Gatard, Mirko Jakovljevic fr.linkedin.com/pub/dir/Jacques/Gatard jacques.gatard@tttech.com, mirko.jakovljevic@ttech.com Advanced Embedded Data Platforms for Distributed Power Management MEA 2015 www.tttech.comwww.tttech.com Company Key Facts Globally oriented high-tech company, headquartered in Vienna, Austria Innovation leadership - successful transfer of ground breaking research to high-volume production Privately held joint stock company with solid financial base and diversified shareholder basis More than 400 employees with offices in 10 countries (2015) Flexible supply network with leading industry partners and research institutions 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2012 2013 2015Forecast 2014 2009 2010 Facts Gross Performance in MEUR HQ Vienna (AT) Ingolstadt (GER) Brixen (I) Bucharest (RO) Brno (CZ) Budapest (H) EUROPE Shanghai (CN) Seoul (KR) Nagoya (JP) ASIA Boston (MA) Bay Area (CA) NORTH AMERICA 2 www.tttech.com Product Examples Our Markets and USPs High-end ECUDeterministic Ethernet SwitchADAS Platform 3U VPX Switch Markets TTTech USPs Focus on Safe and Robust Networking and Controls TTTech is the technology leader in robust networked safety controls TTTech is the innovator of Deterministic Ethernet and the driving force behind the TTEthernet standard TTTech transfers proven aerospace network technology to mass markets like automotive and industrial Automotive Aerospace Industrial Off-Highway 3 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved A380 Integrated Modular Avionics 4 Copyright JB Itier, Airbus A380 Integrated Modular Avionics Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved www.tttech.com Integrated Modular Avionics The needs The solution: Integrated Avionics Architectures Higher system efficiency (SWaP reduction) New functional capabilities Minimized maintenance/lifecycle costs Longer maintenance intervals … Less parts, higher commonality, modularity Increased levels of functional Integration New capabilities, System level optimization Many functions hosted on common embedded resources Embedded Virtualization! 5 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved www.tttech.com More Electric Aircraft Data Network The needs Higher system efficiency (Single energy) New functional capabilities Minimized maintenance/lifecycle costs Longer maintenance intervals … Less parts, higher commonality, modularity Time and Space distribution New capabilities, System level optimization Many functions hosted on common embedded resources Embedded Virtualization! 6 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved The solution: More Electric Aircraft 7 More Electric Aircraft Distributed embedded controls Aircraft-wide hard RT system integration capability IMA-style infrastructure Ethernet-based data systems? Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Distributed Power Systems with „private“ embedded system and networks - Sensor Analog model + Controller System Reference Measured Output System Output System Input Measured Error Digital real world Sensor Controller System Network Interface Card Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Control Loops like Hard Real Time Determinism! Data network latency and jitter increase complexity in the control equations!!! 8 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved TTEthernet: Combining three worlds • IEEE 802.3 standard traffic • Best effort (IP) • ARINC 664 (AFDX®) / AVB • Rate-constrained • Avionics • Audio/video & Sensor fusion • SAE AS6802 synchronization • Real-time control • Ultra-low latency • Safety systems Copyright © 2011-2013 Lorill Electronic Sales Synchronous / Hard Real Time Asynchronous / Event Triggered Best Effort Ethernet (IP) 9 Precise latency and minimum jitter (< 1µs) Distributed fault-tolerant synchronization Robust time base Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Synchronized Global Time 10 AFDX® network TTEthernet Mixed Network Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved 11 Starting point: AFDX® network TTEthernet switches configured to operate as pure AFDX TTEthernet Mixed Network Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved 12 Starting point: AFDX® network TTEthernet switches configured to operate as pure AFDX Add function using time- triggered services (TT messages, GPS…) TTEthernet Mixed Network Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved 13 Starting point: AFDX® network TTEthernet switches configured to operate as pure AFDX Add function using time- triggered services (TT messages, DIMA, GPS…) Do further changes (e.g., add other AFDX® network, BE Ethernet E/S, Distributed IMA) TTEthernet Mixed Network 14 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Segregated model One MEA IMA-like embedded data platform (trans-ATA) separated from main avionics IMA system IMA runs only asynchronous (ARINC664/AFDX®) traffic Distributed Power data network runs synchronous (TT) traffic Both traffic coexist seamlessly at the interface IMA and Distributed Power Data Systems (1/3) 15 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Towards more integration Some high level MEA functions integrated in the avionics IMA Mix of asynchronous and synchronous traffics in the aircraft IMA. Both traffic coexist in the IMA Comprehensive safety and efficiency analysis needed Impact on the OEM/Tier 1 relationship!!! IMA and Distributed Power Data Systems (2/3) 16 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Subsidiarity! Most of high level MEA functions integrated in the avionics IMA Only low level and/or backup systems at MEA data network level Mix of asynchronous and synchronous traffics in the aircraft IMA Strong impact on the OEM/Tier 1 relationship!!! IMA and Distributed Power Data Systems (3/3) 17 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved 18 Distributed Power data System & Controls More functions hosted in common infrastructure Lower SWaP, less connections, higher commonality Simplified design of reusable, modular and scalable architectures Functions can reside anywhere in the system, not tied to specific box or unit Simplified reconfiguration and improved dispatch Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Summary: Distributed Power Data Systems and Controls Potential Optimization Distributed power systems can be controlled by IMA-style embedded data systems and controls Synchronous capability required to host strictly deterministic and fast controls A combination of SAE AS6802 and ARINC664 make it viable Ensuring Reliable Networks www.tttech.com www.tttech.com Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved.

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2/16/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2014 MEA 2015 Latest advances in electric Primary Flight Control Actuation (PFCA) February 5th 2015,Toulouse 2 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. UTC PROPULSION & AEROSPACE SYSTEMSUTC BUILDING & INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS 3 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. UTC AEROSPACE SYSTEMS Actuation & Propeller Systems Products Primary flight controls Secondary flight controls Utility actuation Missile actuation Nacelle actuation systems Propellers Cockpit controls and cabin equipment Trimmable horizontal stabilizer actuators Utility systems Thermal control systems Specialist composites Key Platforms Airbus A380 • Boeing 787 Dreamliner • Embraer E170/190 • Bombardier Global Express • Mitsubishi MRJ • Irkut MC-21 Sikorsky S-92 • Lockheed Martin F-35 • Eurocopter EC175 • Embraer KC-390 • Eurocopter NH90 • COMAC ARJ21 Agusta Westland AW139 • Bombardier CSeries • Dassault Falcon F7X • Airbus A400M • ATR 42/72 • C295 • Lockheed Martin C-130 4 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. INTRODUCTION  MEA since the end of 80’s. SC  EHA or EMA  Diversify power source : Safety Maintenance (hydraulics & pneumatics) Serial equipments 5 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA EHA ELECTRO-HYDROSTATIC ACTUATOR 6 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA OVERVIEW 7 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. A380 (2000-2005) Components optimization Improvement of the design – Maturity COVAN (1997-2000) A320 EHA A330 EHA Endurance 10000 FH Flight test (100 FH) CDVF (1993) Endurance Flight test 60 H MEASC EGIDE (1990-93) Technology feasibility Demonstration in lab conditions EHA HISTORY 8 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA IN FLIGHT  EHA IN SERVICE (since 2007) EHA proven technology (back up mode) 9 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA LESSONS LEARNT  Pump key design drivers (life duration /weight /inertia)  Thermal management  Parts cleanliness  Actuator bleeding  Inlet pressure implementation – Pump life duration  Electronic optimization  Still potential for improvement 10 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA NEXT STEPS  ON GOING R&T PROJECTS Improve : Reliability and Cost  100 % active (Autonomous & long life EHA) • Challenges Pump life > 150000FH • External leakage ~ 0 • Fluid contamination 30 years  Additive manufacturing use (cost & weight ) 11 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA EMA ELECTRO-MECHANICAL ACTUATOR 12 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA OVERVIEW  FROM EHA TO EMA (ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATOR) EHA EMA SIMPLER 13 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA.  EMBEDDED OR REMOTE ECU EMA TOPOLOGIES  LINEAR GEAR DRIVE EMA  LINEAR DIRECT DRIVE EMA  ROTARY GEAR DRIVE EMA 14 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. A2015 (2011-2015) EMA modules standardization Reliability, weight and cost GENOME (2012-2017) Components EMA topologies Power management HUMS EMA flight tests MODENE (2009-2015) Modeling Endurance (150 000 FH) MOET (2006-2009) Reliability Fault Anticipating System MEASC ELISA (90’s) Technology feasability EMA HISTORY 15 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA ACHIEVEMENTS  Topologies and components traded and optimized  Mechanical sizing tools  Module standardization  EMA modeling and testing  EMA endurance on going 16 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA LESSONS LEARNT  Thermal management EMA Constant loading = EMA Constant heating  Minimize EMA motor current  Maximize dissipation  Inertia EMA Inertia > > SC Inertia  Minimize Meq (flutter, end stop)  Minimize gear ratio  Jamming risk  Minimize parts, material, pairing  Lubrication  Optimize lubricant cleanness  Backlash  Pairing, pre-loads  Reliability  Minimize components  Envelope/weight  Highly Integrated components Active Std-by = Oscillator 17 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA CURRENT STATUS  EMA TOPOLOGIES COMPARISON  SHORT TERM ACTIVITIES o HUMS tests o Flight tests o Supply chain development (partnerships) o Design to cost Linear GD Linear DD Rotary GD Thermal management + - + Inertia - + - Jamming risk - + - Backlash - + - Enveloppe Wider, Thiner Tighter, Thicker Wider, Thiner Weight = = = 18 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. CONCLUSION  Electrical actuation : > 25 yrs  EHA TRL9  Aircraft gain (safety, availability)  EMAs PFC to be matured in flight  Next steps: o EHA long life and autonomous o EMA life duration and reliability confirmation o ECU optimization and mutualization o Manufacturing and industrialization optimization o Health monitoring and prognostic MEA  PFC requirements to be adapted  Components to be optimized  Road map is defined, to next A/C PFCA generation is on its way 19 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 20 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. ANY QUESTION ? 21 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. Goodrich Actuation Systems SAS a UTC AEROSPACE SYSTEMS COMPANY 106 rue Fourny, 78530 Buc, France © Copyright of the content document belongs to Goodrich Actuation Systems SAS (a UTC AEROSPACE SYSTEMS COMPANY) and all rights are reserved. No reproduction of all or part of this document shall be made without prior written consent of Goodrich Actuation Systems SAS. This document contains information that may be confidential and its disclosure to others requires the written consent of Goodrich Actuation Systems SAS.

Auteurs

Eric Dautriat

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A more Electric Innovation Chain in Europe Clean Sky, Innovation Takes Off Toulouse 3-5 February 2015 Eric Dautriat Executive Director – Clean Sky Joint Undertaking Clean Sky : Innovation takes off Europe’s largest Aeronautics Research Programme ever • CS1 started in 2008 within FP7, up to 2017; continuation decision in 2014 with CS2 in H2020 • Environmental objectives for CS1: CO2 and noise • Environment, competitiveness and mobility for CS2 • CS1: 1.6 B€ value; CS2: 4 B€ • Integrated breakthrough technologies, up to full scale demos • CS2: 2014-2020 (2024) • 600 participants in CS1 www.cleansky.eu Concept Aircraft Integrated Program Structure Sustainable and Green Engines Systems for Green Operations Eco-Design Clean Sky Technology Evaluator Green RotorcraftSmart Fixed Wing Aircraft Green Regional Aircraft TECHNOLOGIES & DEMONSTRATORS MEA = 10% of Clean Sky A wide « innovation chain » 24% 36% 20% 20% Industries SMEs Research Organisations Universities 65 Associates 6x2 Leaders >500 Partners ~230 participations in Systems for Green Operations Clean Sky 2 : a big step forward Large Systems ITDs Vehicle IADPs Integr. Aircraft Demonstr Platforms TechnologyEvaluator(TE) GermanAerospaceCenter(DLR) TechnologyEvaluator(TE) GermanAerospaceCenter(DLR) Eco-Design FraunhoferGesellschaft Eco-Design FraunhoferGesellschaft Regional Aircraft Alenia Aermacchi Regional Aircraft Alenia Aermacchi Fast Rotorcraft Agusta Westland Eurocopter Fast Rotorcraft Agusta Westland Eurocopter Engines ITD Safran – Rolls-Royce – MTU Engines ITD Safran – Rolls-Royce – MTU Systems ITD Thales – Liebherr Systems ITD Thales – Liebherr Airframe ITD Dassault – EADS-CASA – Saab Airframe ITD Dassault – EADS-CASA – Saab SmallAirTransport Evektor–Piaggio SmallAirTransport Evektor–Piaggio 1.8b€ Total EU Funding Proposed Large Passenger Aircraft Airbus Large Passenger Aircraft Airbus Clean Sky - More Electric Aircraft - Toulouse - 3-5 Feb 15 Clean Sky is now about 85% of the EU- funded aeronautical research SGO - Management of Aircraft Energy SGO Technology Development & Validation of Electrical Aircraft Systems Stakeholders in the WP Member and Partner Know-How from previous R&T projects Electrical Equipment Thermal Management Equipment Load Management Functions Skin HX MAE developments for Large Aircraft Electrical ECS Electrical WIPS Engine Nacelle Sys Electrical Power Center Wiring System Ice Detection Load Management Vapour Cycle cooling system 7 Generators E-ECS pack New Alternator and: • New AC Primary Electrical Distribution • Cabin Electrical & E-ECS power racks • 270VDC Electrical Energy Management Power Center (E-EM EPC) • Simulated Resistive Load (SREL) • EMAs electrical loads (in cabin) • FTI/Flight Test Station (FTES) 270 HVDC network demo channel Electrical Energy Management logics validation EMA/Bench test on A/C Demo MEA Modifications: EPGS Mod: Electrical Power – Modification of ACWF generation and distribution E-EMS Mod: Electrical Power – Installation of 270V DC Generation distribution including Electrical Power Center (EPC) and Simulated Resistive Electrical Load (SREL) E-ECS Mod: Air Conditioning – Installation of an Experimental electrical environmental control sys. – E-ECS (one pack) EMAs Mod: Installation of two electrical actuator EMAs – FCS/LG (each mounted on a dedicated test bench, both located in Cabin) One example of flight tests: ATR-72 testbed MEA in Clean Sky 2 / ITD Systems Clean Sky - More Electric Aircraft - Toulouse - 3-5 Feb 15 Avionics / cockpit Cabin & cargo systems Electrical wing Landing gear systems Major loads Small Air Transport Systems Electrical Chain + MEA-related activities in other Platforms, e.g. Airframe and Large Aircraft A more electric Clean Sky innovation chain Clean Sky framework intended to bring : - An optimized, balanced funding for airframer and equipments manufacturers (and engine manufacturers) - a close collaboration between systems suppliers and airframers - the involvement of bottom-up innovation processes from SMEs and Universities to integrators - a novel, integrated system design environment with appropriate tools •Clean Sky - More Electric Aircraft - Toulouse - 3-5 Feb 15 www.cleansky.eu Hosting a unique blend of high tech companies throughout Europe, and a set of advanced test- benches, Clean Sky is the ideal house for highly contributing to the development of “more electric” widspread innovation First Call for Proposals for Clean Sky 2 launched in December – will close end of March: We need your talents

Colin Smith

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1 Trusted to deliver excellence © 2015 Rolls-Royce plc The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc. This information is given in good faith based upon the latest information available to Rolls-Royce plc, no warranty or representation is given concerning such information, which must not be taken as establishing any contractual or other commitment binding upon Rolls-Royce plc or any of its subsidiary or associated companies. How the More Electric Aircraft is influencing a More Electric Engine and More! European Conference on More Electric Aircraft Toulouse, February 4-5, 2015 Colin Smith CBE FRS Director of Engineering and Technology, Rolls-Royce plc 2 Colin Smith CBE FRS • Joined Rolls-Royce in 1974 as an undergraduate apprentice • Chief Engineer of Small Engines in Bristol • Chief Engineer for the Trent 500 and Trent 700 Engine projects • Director of Research and Technology in 2001 • Director of Engineering and Technology in 2005 Unlike Sir Henry Royce, not an Electrical Engineer by background! 3 A brief history of Rolls-Royce 1884 FH Royce & Co 1899 Royce Ltd 1904 Rolls meets Royce 1906 Rolls- Royce Ltd 1931 'R' Engine wins Schneider Trophy 1940 Merlin helps win Battle of Britain 1940s R-R begins Gas Turbine Development 1953 Dart & Avon enter Civil Market 1969 1st run of RB211 1990 1st run of Trent 1966 Bristol Aero Engines acquired 1995 Allison acquired 1999 Vickers acquired 2000 BMW Aero Engs acquired 2013 TrentXWB Certification 1914 1st R-R Aero Engine 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 4 Rolls-Royce products today Civil Aerospace Defence Aerospace Marine Power Systems Our engines keep up 400,000 people in the air at any one time 160 armed forces around the world depend on our engines 30,000 commercial and naval vessels use our marine equipment Develop, produce and service energy markets under the MTU and Bergen engine brands Nuclear Design authority for the Royal Navy's naval nuclear plant 5 The move to a More Electric Engine • Over the last 100 years transportation has become increasingly electrified • Increased sharply over the last decade with the Boeing 787 ‘More Electric Aircraft’ • As we look to the future this trend will only increase… • … and the Engineering challenges are great! 6 ‘Electric’ Warships of WWII • Launched in 1918; the USS Mexico was claimed to be the worlds first Electric Warship • Used 20% less fuel than it’s two sister ships which had conventional direct drive turbine. • The design used in the Tennessee class battleships The Electric Revolution In Marine Propulsion Rim Driven Tunnel Thruster • Thrusters of this type are installed on all type of vessels • They are used for harbour manoeuvring and ship positioning during operations at sea • Rolls-Royce produce ~500 thrusters per year 7 The Present – Key driving factor Why the More Electric Aircraft has changed the gas turbine The Future – Key Driver How the all Electric Aircraft will impact the propulsion system The move to a More Electric Engine Contents 8 Aerospace Industry Challenges Overall ACARE* Environmental Targets for 2020 The ACARE targets represent a doubling of the historical rate of improvement… * Advisory Council for Aerospace Research in Europe Targets are for new aircraft and whole industry relative to 2000 Reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 50% Reduce NOX emissions by 80% Reduce perceived external noise by 50% The move to a More Electric Engine Present - Key driver 9 How the More Electric Aircraft has changed the Gas Turbine IN: Fuel Start air OUT: Thrust HP air Wing anti-ice air Electricity Hydraulics Fuel Start air Electricity (hotel mode) Cabin air (hotel mode) Air Hydraulics Cabin air Pneumatic Wing anti- ice ECS RAT APU Cabin airHP air Electricity, Hydraulics (emergency) Conventional More electric IN: Fuel Electric start OUT: Thrust Electricity Fuel Electric start Electricity (hotel mode only) Cabin air Air Options Electrical actuation Cabin air Electrical wing anti- icing New APU design Bleed Deleted RAT ECS Increased complexity of system control including Engine 10 How the More Electric Aircraft has changed the Gas Turbine 1980 20001990 2020 20302010 PowerRequirements[kW] 500 1000 1500 2000 Hybrid / All Electric Aircraft More Electric Aircraft B787 A380 F4 - 60kW F35 F14 Conventional B767 Progression of Aircraft Electrical Power Requirements 11 Power Optimised Aircraft Project • 43 European aerospace partners The objectives were: • To test candidate technologies • To find out what are the critical design issues associated with installing these technologies. • The engine test was to prove the capability of these technologies it was not a product demonstrator Examples of Previous Rolls-Royce Experience SEED (Small Electric Engine Demonstrator) • Single Spool Core Demonstrator Engine on Build Stand • The first in-house Rolls-Royce engine with embedded electric start 12 The Trent 1000 has been tailored for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner™ Built on the success of the Trent family, the Trent 1000 offers airline operators a unique combination. • Trent family experience • Advanced technology • Smart design The move to a More Electric Engine Trent 1000 – Tailored for the More Electric Aircraft 13 Unique to 3-shaft architecture • Fuel savings on short range • Best Compressor Operability • Lower idle thrust • Lower noise Challenges surrounding Electrical to Mechanical stiffness • Sustained Torsional oscillation • Increased integration of systems The move to a More Electric Engine Intermediate Pressure Power Off-Take 14 • Novel Starter Generator • Electrical Accessories • Electric Actuators • Advanced Bearings • Potential to remove the Accessory Gearbox • Can be Bled or Bleedless engine The move to a More Electric Engine Key technology components 15 The move to a More Electric Engine The main challenges Rolls-Royce Proprietary Information Page 15 of 5 Technology • x1 order of magnitude for Thermal Integration • X2 order of magnitude for Power Electronics • X3 order of magnitude for Technology Risk • Customer has zero tolerance to programme delay 16 Potential targets • Aircraft movements are emission-free when taxiing. • Air vehicles are designed and manufactured to be recyclable. • Europe is established as a centre of excellence on sustainable alternative fuels Targets are for new aircraft and whole industry relative to 2000 Reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 75% Reduce NOX emissions by 90% Reduce perceived external noise by 65% The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Future Key driver – New ACARE Targets for 2050 17 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! The S-Curve of Technology Cycles 18 Distributed Electrical Aerospace Propulsion (DEAP) project • Technology Strategy Board and Industry funded project (value £1.07M); • Partners are Airbus Innovation, Rolls-Royce and University of Cranfield; • Started in early 2013 and runs until 2015; • Key innovative technologies: • Improved fuel economy • Reduced exhaust gas and noise emissions • Distributed Propulsion (DP) system architecture • Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Fully Distributed Propulsion 19 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Fully Distributed Propulsion Concept Layout Copyright © 2013 Rolls-Royce, plc All rights reserved. Electrically-Powered Fans Single Advanced Gas Turbine Power Electronics 20 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Fully Distributed Propulsion Concept Layout 21 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! The main challenges Superconducting electric machines Very high power dense advanced Power Electronics Cryogenic cooling 22 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Challenges - Advanced Power Electronics  N-Technology Stream (Now Generation) - Silicon based technology developed from automotive experience;  N+1 Technology Stream (Next Generation) - New generation Integrated Silicon Carbide or Gallium Nitride Devices - Ultra Efficient (>99%)  N+2 Technology Stream (Generation after next) - A suite of technology streams will be developed by our network of University Technology Centres ready for later technology insertion 23 The move to the More Electric Engine & more! Challenges - Cryogenic Cooling Cryogenic Cooling for Distributed Propulsion Actual Estimated 24 In Summary • Rolls-Royce is well positioned to understand how a shift to a More Electric Aircraft will impact its product offering • However, the full electrically powered MEA is some way off and • To get there many technical challenges such as increased control and integration of systems will be required • Electrical technology is increasingly important across all our business sectors • Already exploiting the benefits in Marine where weight and space are less important • Need to learn from other industries eg Automotive • RR looking forward to the next 100 years Thank you for your time & attention 25 Questions Copyright © 2013 Rolls-Royce, plc All rights reserved. “Invent once, re-use many times.”

André Benhamou

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More Electrical Aircraft : Potential impacts on the Supply Chain MEA 2015 Conference Toulouse, February 3rd, 2015 André Benhamou, TOMPASSE, Président TOMPASSE is an association set in 2007 that groups industrial companies in the “Aeronautics, Space and Embedded Systems” field in the Midi-Pyrenees Region.  Promote the industries involved in the Region  Facilitate regular discussions between industrial companies in the sector  Become a natural point of contact for regional partners (Local State authorities, local communities, etc..)  Be involved in regional actions for Aeronautics, Space and Embedded Systems. More information : http://www.tompasse.com Contact : contact@tompasse.com MEA 2015 Conference 2/14 Starting point : A new aircraft significantly more efficient (DOC, emissions..) than today aircrafts will necessitate : • An improved aircraft configuration • New engines • Breakthrough technologies for systems and structural parts conducting to new products The MEA is fully involved in this adventure MEA 2015 Conference 3/14 TOMPASSE, on request of DIRECCTE Midi-Pyrénées has driven an analysis with ARCHERY Consulting in order to evaluate the trend of the supply chain structuring. The work in still on-going however some preliminary results of this study are included in this presentation. MEA 2015 Conference 4/14 On existing platforms the supply chain for aircraft parts is well structured : a simplified view • Aircraft manufacturer packages : 1. Structural parts (*) (complex or critical packages) 2. Pylon between engine and wing 3. Cockpit design & integration 4. Some generic components or critical systems 5. Integration packages (HP, LP air ducting, fuel piping, hydraulic ducts, wiring..) • Tier 1 Supplier packages : 1. Engines with or without nacelle : engine are certified separately large autonomy 2. Structural parts : A/C manufacturers significantly involved  limited autonomy 3. All systems mainly splitted by ATA chapter  Intermediate autonomy In the value chain, each package has its own supply chain (Tier 2, 3, 4…). Some suppliers may be common to several packages. (*) Structural parts mean : fuselage, wings, pressure bulkheads… MEA 2015 Conference 5/14 In the last twenty years the trend was to increase the size of the supplier packages for two main reasons : • Share program & financial risks between the A/C manufacturer and its major suppliers • Launch several programs in parallel without increasing too much the size of design offices and therefore reducing NRC at A/C manufacturer. The result is : • Tier 1 suppliers are becoming bigger and bigger and could become a new category of Super Tier 1 allowing some existing Tier 1 to become Tier 2. • A consolidation of the industry is on-going and there are less and less independent intermediate size companies. • The gap between big groups and small companies is wider than before. However, this picture is not totally stabilized as some A/C manufacturers are going back and resize packages. MEA 2015 Conference 6/14 How a MEA could impact the supply chain : • New technologies will imply new actors : • Examples : Connected Aircraft, power electronics, high voltage technologies, new generation of composites etc… • The A/C design will necessarily go across ATA chapters to have a global optimization of the electrical configuration  power management, thermal management, degraded modes etc.. • A rupture aircraft by definition will present new technological challenges and may lead A/C manufacturers to keep more products internally to mitigate risks, at least for the first application. • Same behaviour could also be seen at major Tier 1. MEA 2015 Conference 7/14 • Definition of the overall architecture of a new aircraft • Global optimization of the electrical and thermal architecture • Identification of the new functional chains • Definition of consistant technical packages minimizing interfaces and interactions between them • Definition of procurement packages allowing competition • Selection of suppliers mastering the key technologies of the considered package and having the financial strenghes  new Tier 1. MEA 2015 Conference 8/14 A possible scenario ! • What could be the trend for the various players ? 9 Preliminary design System design Detailed design Industrialization Production Assembly & Tests Support & Services Tier 3 to Tier n Tier 2 Tier 1 & Super Tier 1 A/C Manufacturer Value chain Offer Parts Systems Components and software MEA 2015 Conference 9/14 As a consequence we can expect to see Tier 1 and Super Tier 1 with a minimal critical size i.e. above 1 BUSD turnover able to : • Develop complex work packages • Contract Management, Program Management, System Architects • Develop a real product policy • Have financial strengh to live with a business model including more than 50 to 100 MUSD development NRC per program • Guarantee its package for the life of the program • Spare and Piece part availability, obsolescence management, technical follow-up / retrofit … • Manage a worldwide supply chain MEA 2015 Conference 10/14 Tier 2 suppliers will be of intermediate size i.e. 100 to 200 MUSD turnover and able to : • Share a mix between built-to-print and built-to-spec • Share a limited risk transfer from their customers • Have financial strengh to follow the technology changes and stay state-of-the-art in their domain • Be competitive & manage their supply chain MEA 2015 Conference 11/14 In that scenario what could become the supply chain particularly SME : • Components suppliers • Technology « niches » • Piece parts and special processes for A/C manufacturers & Tier 1 • Capacity sub contractors And outside A/C parts : • Test rigs and tooling • Proximity services • Special expertises MEA 2015 Conference 12/14 Possible schedule for a new MEA : Unless one player decides to launch a new program earlier….. 2015 2022 2025 2032 EISProgram launchRFI/RFP 7 years +3 years 2020 RFTI  Next five years : R & T to reach the right TRL for MEA new technologies  RFTI & RFI will be a competitive phase to evaluate the readiness of MEA technologies and organize the supply chain  Therefore timeframe from 2015 to 2025 can be used to improve existing family of aircrafts. MEA 2015 Conference 13/14 Thank you for your attention !! MEA 2015 Conference 14/14

Alain Sauret

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MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURETQ3 REVENUE 2011 / OCTOBER 21, 2011 / Power & Data systems Hunting for simplification Alain Sauret, LPS CEO MEA2015 conference Toulouse, February 4th 2015 1 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET Safran is nearly positioned across the whole chain, with LPS acting as the strong arm of electrical power systems Power sources AGB Generator Distribution Power converterActuators Various loads EWIS for power Engine RAT Fuel Cells Battery ATA24 & EWIS Up to 1.5MW electrical power to manage (combining all power sources) Flight controls Nacelle Landing gear EWIS for data APU Electric fans Configuration management 2 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET Towards MEA A320ceo, F7X A380 & A350 Boeing 787 A30X Wing & nacelle deicing Pneumatic Pneumatic Electricity Electricity? ECS, Start Avionics, Lighting, etc. Electricity Electricity Commercial loads Control braking Hydraulic Partial electrification Control (FCS, steering) Hydraulic Partial electrification?Configure (landing gear, TRAS) 3 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET Aircraft include more functions and become more electric, impacting cost, weight and complexity in design Cost & weight are function of carried power but also of electrical architecture and installation ATA24 EWIS Boeing 787 A320ceo Falcon 7X Weight Shipset Boeing 787 A320ceo Falcon 7X Weight Shipset A320ceo 270kW Falcon 7X 50kW Boeing 787 1,500kW Price Price E d 4 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET A clear trend towards more complexity and power optimization  New functions and power optimized aircraft  More electrical power to be distributed and increasing volume of data to be transmitted  Electrical architecture is evolving from centralized to distributed power distribution systems  The growing electrification and complexity of systems lead to more integrated power and data  A need to reduce costs  Reducing RC through more integration – reduce the number of parts  Reducing NRC through more concurrent engineering across the entire chain with the objective of simplifying  Reducing OC through more flexibility of functions and robust products at EIS Simplifying the current power and data systems could be the enabler for a MEA with more functionalities 5 / MEA2015 Conference – Alain SAURET The challenge of simplification is high - can we address it better than today?  A team challenge  Airframers, Equipment suppliers and Certification authorities jointly challenging architectures and products, respecting the role of each player in the team  Academia and industry jointly developing new technologies through a lean mid & long term roadmap  Building new standards  Successful Technology insertion  Robustness and maturity demonstration methodology  Fit for Purpose approach for both incremental and breakthrough  Invest in Tools and Processes  For better modeling and simulation, as “a learning machine”  For more efficient development, certification, production and operation  New cooperation models  Reducing NRC for both airframers and equipment suppliers  Anticipating and sharing risks & revenues over the Life Cycle Integration and robustness increase at lower costs Simplifying Power & Data management and transport

Bernard Baldini

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CedocumentestlapropriétéintellectuelledeDassaultAviation.Ilnepeutêtreutilisé,reproduit,modifié oucommuniquésanssonautorisation.DassaultAviationProprietaryData. Référence Indice Date Toward a More Electrical Falcon Business Jet MEA 2015 Toulouse February 4 & 5 th Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. Agenda • What is about @ aircraft level? • What for?  Design drivers • Means of evaluation and validation • Challenges of E-Systems • Wrap-up MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 2 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- What is about @ aircraft level? “Less engine bleed off-takes” “Less hydraulic lines”  More engine electrical off-takes with Systems Powered By-Wires MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 3 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- What for?  Design drivers The main design drivers @ aircraft level  Dispatch rate/ equipment reliability  Range/ weight/ fuel consumption  Production & maintenance costs  Environmental impact MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 4 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Means of evaluation and validation  System modeling, energy management modeling, aircraft assessments  Electrical network evaluation and modeling validation @ Clean Sky_Copper bird MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 5 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Means of evaluation and validation  Thermal evaluation and modeling validation @ Clean Sky-Thermal bench  Wind tunnel testing/ aircraft testing MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 6 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Challenges of E-Systems Architectures & Aircraft assessment  Clever choice of E-system operation and associated electrical architecture with optimization of the power losses  Could require more equipment and space allocation compared to classical system pending E-choices, weight compromise including:  Heat thermal management: multiple concept looks @  EMI/HIRF/Lightning protection aspects  PbW routing  Implies more electronics, power conversion  Achievement of system failure rate objectives is a challenge  Reliability needs to be addressed in design phase, taking in account the product life  Power electronics and power conversion density shall continue to progress MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 7 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Challenges of E-Systems Dispatch & Operation Production & Maintenance « plug an play equipment » « better failure diagnostics » « green technologies »  Should improve dispatch rate thanks to continuing operation with partial failures  System self-reconfiguration shall be possible  Less hidden/dormant failures MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 8 Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Challenges of E-Systems Dispatch & Operation Production & Maintenance « plug an play equipment » « better failure diagnostics » « green technologies »  “Digital factory”: continues the changes brought by the CATIA PLM systems: system automatic tests, new operator skills, less usage of pollutant fluid  Shall reduce production/maintenance cost and immobilization time MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 9 but the equipment cost will depend on forthcoming choices to be made by airliner manufacturers Ce document est la propriété intellectuelle de Dassault Aviation. Il ne peut être utilisé, reproduit, modifié ou communiqué sans son autorisation. Dassault Aviation Proprietary Data. MEA- Wrap-up More Electrical Systems for a « More Electrical Falcon » « Innovative and efficient» « EASy to use» « Economic and ecologic » MEA 2015- Toulouse, February 4 & 5 th, 2015 10

Emmanuel Joubert

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Title of presentation runs here on two lines / Arial Regular 30 pt Subtitel goes here / Arial Regular 20 pt VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN The first purpose-built, electrically powered trainer aircraft AIRBUS Group – SAFRAN – ZODIAC 05/02/2015 - TOULOUSE VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France Agenda 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 2 History and Origin of the project E-Fan 2.0 objectives Partnership Requirements Challenges Electrical System Devices High Voltage Electrical System Skills Technical Challenges Electric Propulsion Challenges eFAN eIPS 2.0 Concept VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France The “E-FAN Family” concept 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 3 2017 World’s first fully electric four engine aerobatic plane First purpose-built electric powered training aircraft Industrialized version of E-FAN 1.0 => Electrization of a thermical plane => Flying test bed => Commercial version of a full-electrical training plane VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN 2.0: Main objectives & challenges • 4 objectives: ▫ Competitive aircraft Response to a market need for ab-initio trainings Competitive price in Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) ▫ Certifiable aircraft: regulatory acceptance of electric propulsion ▫ Aircraft suitable for production: structuring of an industrial sector ▫ Acceptability of new learning methods by all the stakeholders (teachers, pilots, regulatory authorities) • 4 challenges: 26/02/2015 4 Avion Thermal Aircraft Project goals Weight <600 kg (LSA certification) <600 kg (LSA** certification) TCO 100 à 120 €/h Less than 90 €/h (low energy cost, minimizing immobilization with low maintenance) Autonomy 4 - 5 hours 1h + 15 min for security reasons Availability 10 hours / day scheduled maintenance every 50h 5 hours / day (quick charge in 45 min) Yearly scheduled maintenance*** * Restricted certificate of airworthiness ** Light Sport Aircraft *** Based on the use of 300 hours per year E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France Towards production 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 5 E-FAN 1.0 Flying Demonstrator Design Pré- Industrialization E-FAN 2.0 June 2011 July 2014 2017 100% electrical engine 2 seats side-by- side Fixed gear Initial training Battery management system E-FAN 2.0 E-FAN 1.0 PSPC Creation of VoltAir, 100% Airbus Group Subsidiaries VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN 2.0: Partners 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 66 Consortium of 10 partners for industrial production • 6 industrial partners: Airbus Group (with Daher- Socata as key subcontractor), Zodiac Aerospace, Safran, ACS, Evtronic, Serma Technologies; • 4 research organizations / schools: CEA Tech, ENAC, ENSAM, ISAE, INSA. VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France ASTM 2840 26 February 2015 Presentation Title runs here (go to Header & Footer to edit this text) 7 This specification provides designers and manufacturers of electric propulsion for light sport aircraft design references and criteria to use in designing and manufacturing EPUs • This specification covers minimum requirements for the design and manufacture of Electric Propulsion Units (EPU) for light sport aircraft, VFR use. The EPU shall as a minimum consist of the electric motor, associated controllers, disconnects and wiring, an Energy Storage Device (ESD) such as a battery or capacitor, or both, and EPU monitoring gauges and meters. Optional onboard charging devices, in-flight charging devices or other technology may be included. • § 5 : Data requirement : data recorder & storing, drawings, reference, M&P, operating manuel, maintenance manuel • § 6 : Design Criteria : Material, Fire, Crash, vibration, SW • § 7 : Qualification tests : durability, endurance, reliability (for each component of EPU and for the EPU system) • § 8 : Manufacturing Requirements Applicable to Airbus Group, SAFRAN, ZODIAC VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France Example of Top Level Requirement TLR Regulatory requirements 6 Operating environment and limitations 7 Mission capability and performance 9 Physical characteristics 9 Cabin & comfort 8 Ergonomy/HMI 10 Safety 3 Reliability 7 Availability 1 Maintainability 5 Service life and utilization characteristics 5 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 10 Rescue and emergency equipment 1 Commercial options 2 26/02/2015 Regulatory : - MTOW = 600 kg (LSA) - Vs ≤ 83 km/h - Load Factor : Positive limit load factor : +4 g Negative limit load factor : -2 g - The system shall be designed for flight in heavy rain - Rate of climb at VY shall exceed 95 m/min (312 fpm) Market - Operating temperatures : ISA -30 to ISA +25 - Autonomy 1 hour + 15 min reserve - Nb Rotation : 6 per day - Average yearly utilization : 300 FH/year - Cabin size : fit with EU and US market - Heating system to ensure a cabin temperature of 15°C under an OAT of -10°C - Transition between thermal and electrical easy - No more than 30 min to remove or install Line Replaceable Units (LRU) - No additional calendar scheduled maintenance, except those mandated by A/C manufacturers VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN 2.0 : Main innovations & challenges 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 9 Area of work E-FAN 1.0 demonstrator Project innovations Challenges Energy storage Energy density: 100 Wh/kg 130 kg of Li-Ion batteries Energy delivered: 13 kWh Energy density > 200 Wh/kg 200 kg max of Li-Ion batteries Typical energy: 40 kWh Mechanical integration / Packaging Electrochemistry and Materials Intelligent energy management / Safety Recharge Slow recharge in about 2h Quick recharge in 45 min Heating / cooling batteries Preservation durability / safety Engine specification Electric motor and fan ducted Optimization of the propulsion system (efficiency, cooling, acoustic) Cooling and electromagnetism management Internal aerodynamics Noise control and management High energy density (approx. 5kW/kg on the pack) VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France E-FAN 2.0 : Main innovations & challenges 26/02/2015 E-FAN: Development of an electrically-powered aircraft 10 Area of work E-FAN 1.0 demonstrator Project innovations Challenges Taxiing Remote engine with transmission to the wheel New system to integrate into a fixed gear Design / Integration motor/wheel Robustness and reliability under conditions of use IHM / Avionics Customization of a classic dashboard Modern cockpit compatible with the training demands and the transition to a thermal plane Ability to simplify the management of electric propulsion and autonomy Weight Current weight: 650 kg (incl. 130 kg of batteries) Weight to reach: 600 kg incl. 200 kg of batteries (reduction of 120 kg) Batteries mass: 200 kg max Lighter engines, structure and system Aircraft system No redundancy or system reconfiguration Combine the high requirements of reliability and security with high mass and cost constraints Complex system in a constrained environment VoltAir SAS au capital de 4 000 000 €, 803 675 628 R.C.S. BORDEAUX , Siège social : 25, rue Marcel Issartier, BP20005, 33702 Mérignac Cedex, France ZODIACAEROSPACEWP 26/02/2015 E-FAN:Developmentofanelectrically-poweredaircraft 11 ©ZodiacAeroElectric.Allrightsreserved.Confidentialandproprietarydocument. ZODIAC AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Zodiac Aero Electric - 12 ZODIAC AEROSPACE PACKAGEZODIAC AEROSPACE PACKAGE 1. Energy Storage Device (ESD): Including cells, Battery Management System , Continuous load evaluation , packaging & assembly Activities: Design, protoptype assembly , testing in flight and on ground for the battery charger functton Suppor AGI for the certification activities 2. High voltage electrical system : High voltage distribution system (270 VDC & 350VDC) Activities: Design, protoptype assembly and testing Suppor AGI for the certification activities Competencies to develop : Acquire a global understanding of a full electrical A/C - (support the trade off s leaded by AGI/Socata) Acquire a first experience in hpw certified a a full electrical A/C Develop a battery system integreting COTS cells ©ZodiacAeroElectric.Allrightsreserved.Confidentialandproprietarydocument. ZODIAC AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Zodiac Aero Electric - 13 CHALLENGESCHALLENGES Energy Storage Device : 1. Worldwide benchmark and selection of the Cells 2. Performances des cellules disponibles à ce jour (densité d’énergie) 3. Safety 4. Accuracy of the continuous load evaluation 5. Mechanical Integration directly in the wing box : High voltage electrical distribution system 1. HVDC level 2. HVDC integration (EMI, Safey , short circuit protection) VoltAir SAS au capital de 4 000 000 €, 803 675 628 R.C.S. BORDEAUX , Siège social : 25, rue Marcel Issartier, BP20005, 33702 Mérignac Cedex, France 26/02/2015 E-FAN:Developmentofanelectrically-poweredaircraft 14 VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France - 15 PROPULSION CHALLENGESPROPULSION CHALLENGES Electrical Motor Mass and Performance Integration Cooling Power Electronics Mass and Performances Integration Cooling Ducted Fan Mass and Aero Dynamic Performances Integration Speed Nacelle Mass and Aero Dynamic Performances Integration VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France - 16 eFAN eIPS 2.0 ConcepteFAN eIPS 2.0 Concept Reliable, Cost Improved Solution Low Drag Nacelle Advanced Aircooled Integrated Electronics and Electrical Motor 2 Synchronous Brushless Electrical Motors High Efficiency Distributed Power Electronics High Aerodynamic Efficiency Fan Easy Maintenance Project Management Electrical Motor Power Electronics FAN and Aerodynamics Nacelle Integration and Assembly Title of presentation runs here on two lines / Arial Regular 30 pt Subtitel goes here / Arial Regular 20 pt VoltAirSASaucapitalde4000000€,803675628R.C.S.BORDEAUX,Siègesocial:25,rueMarcelIssartier,BP20005,33702 MérignacCedex,France Thanks for your attention AIRBUS Group : emmanuel.joubert@airbus.com SAFRAN : christophe.claisse@safran.com ZODIAC : Thierry.RougeCarrassat@zodiacaerospace.com

Philip McGoldrick

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This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 0 / Integration of Electrical Machines into the Engine: Routemap of Technology Options and Opportunities Philip McGoldrick Technology Manager February 2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. /01/ INTRODUCTION 2 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. INTRODUCTION A version of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) is already flying, current state-of-the-art is the Boeing 787. Engine related electrical machine technologies – for both generation and power usage – will need to be developed to move beyond this current state-of-the-art. Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Boeing 787: No-bleed main engines - no pneumatic system. Electric engine starting, cabin pressurisation, anti-ice. Central water-cooled dual-use Power Electronics Traditional hydraulic actuation system Electric braking 29.6 V, 65 Ah Li-Ion batteries… The provision of electrical power has become more critical. 3 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. INTRODUCTION Relentless pressure on operational costs, especially on kg of fuel burnt per passenger-kilometer is pulling through a basket of engine related technologies for electrical equipment – dubbed the More Electric Engine (MEE) Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse 4 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. CONVENTIONAL POWER OFFTAKE IN THE ENGINE Conventional large civil aircraft power offtake from the engine is via the AGB (Auxiliary Gear Box): Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse MECHANICAL Oil and High Pressure Fuel Pumping, independent electrical power sources for engine controls. HYDRAULIC MAINS Flight Controls, Landing Gear, Nose Wheel Steering, High Lift, etc. PNEUMATIC Icing Protection (Wing & Nacelle), Environmental Control System, Engine Start (from APU, especially on rotorcraft). ELECTRICAL Constant Frequency Oil Cooled Generation 400Hz 115VAC (VF on A380, 230VAC VF on A350). 5 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. MORE ELECTRIC AIRCRAFT POWER OFFTAKE Current State-of-the-Art Boeing 787: Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse MECHANICAL Oil and High Pressure Fuel Pumping, independent electrical power sources for engine controls. HYDRAULIC MAINS Electrically Driven – Flight Controls, Landing Gear, Nose Wheel Steering, High Lift, etc. PNEUMATIC Electrically Driven – Icing Protection, Environmental Control System, Engine Start. ELECTRICAL 230VAC VF, +/-270VDC for specific large loads and alternate power sources (Fuel Cell APU’s, etc) DELETED DELETED Some local electrical pumped hydraulically for specific actuators 6 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. MORE ELECTRIC ENGINE POWER OFFTAKE Options on power offtake on future More Electric Engine : Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse MECHANICAL Electrically Driven – Oil and High Pressure Fuel Pumping, variety of electrical power sources. HYDRAULIC MAINS Electrically Driven – Flight Controls, Landing Gear, Nose Wheel Steering, High Lift, etc. PNEUMATIC Electrically Driven – Icing Protection, Environmental Control System, Engine Start. ELECTRICAL 230VAC VF and +/-270VDC for specific large loads DELETED DELETED Some local electrical pumped hydraulically for specific actuators DELETED This power system is now beyond the perimeter of ATA Chapter 24 7 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS /02/ 8 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. KERNEL MESSAGE – THERMAL MANAGEMENT Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse As we make additional progress into the More Electric Aircraft Technology Routemap there are more opportunities for Electrical Machines in engine related applications, but as well as improvements in performance, cost and robustness against the harsh environment, more consideration must also be made for systems’ level optimisation, Certification and Safety Case analyses. Thermal Management via the oil system is viewed as the key aspect of machine, equipment, engine system and overall aircraft integration and optimisation that will dominate the design criteria of the electrical power system, and to a degree determine improvements in efficiency and performance. 9 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. OPTIONS / STRANDS OF TECHNOLOGY Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Technical considerations for Electrical Equipment within the Engine Pod Unit Design Integration Certification Safety Case Electrical pumping in Engine Pod for Oil and High Pressure Fuel “Cluster of Large PMAs” Engine Pod Icing Protection Batteries, Supercaps, Fuel Cells, Electrical power generation from conventional APU gas turbine Ultra High Bypass Engine – AGB equipment suite relocated to fuselage or nearer engine core Low Pressure Shaft Generator Core Mounted Starter / Generator Technologies RAT Replacement Concept of “APU Always Available” 10 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement From the High Bypass Ratio Turbofan to the Open Rotor concept for fixed wing airliners, pressure is on for the equipment suite in the engine pod fancasing to take up much less space. Some technology and system architectures could enable lower profile equipment, but some kit would simply have to move. Electronic controllers and drives are a candidate to move to the Equipment Bay in the fuselage, . . . 11 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement . . . . . but some specific electrical machines and pumping applications on the current AGB would have to be moved closer to the core of the engine. 12 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement The environment here is distinctly harsher than in the fancasing – for temperature and vibration. The process of building up the new Safety Case as part of the Qualification and Certification of both equipment and systems is a considerable challenge. 13 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Concept outlined as part of the EU POA programme (Framework Programme 6), built and tested by Goodrich (now Labinal Power Systems UK) in the FSDG work package. As well as the challenge on Integration, Certification and Safety Case, this FSDG concept also contributes to the optimisation of the engine operation itself, and has implications as a potential RAT replacement. 14 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Small PMAs are already used as high redundancy multiple power sources for engine pod electrical networks – FADEC, controls, etc. Large PMAs would be scaled up versions intended to provide the on- pod electrical supply for the significant power applications of Oil and High Pressure Fuel pumping. Some variants of this concept would have one or more of this “array of PMAs” backdriven for the electrical engine start function. 15 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement The main element of Integration and Safety Case consideration with this architecture option is to use high frequency AC or relatively unconditioned DC generated on the engine pod itself for this local load. Savings would be on weight of passive components and electrical control boxes as the power would not need to be routed to the Primary Distribution Centre in the Equipment Bay, only to be then transmitted back out to the engine pod. 16 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Engine oil services are conventionally pumped from a direct drive mechanical source on the AGB. As pressure mounts to relocate equipment and systems currently mounted in the fancasing to elsewhere in the engine pod, this is one candidate application for swapping to electrical pumping. The main benefit from electrification of this power load could be to run the engine oil services independent of the cranking or operation of the gas turbine itself. 17 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement The High Pressure Fuel circuit is used as a heat sink on the engine pod. However, its capacity is limited due to the inefficiency of its direct drive mechanical pumping. Electrification of this power usage is one way of turning this sub- optimisation at equipment level into an opportunity for the system. Higher efficiency pumping would enable heat from other engine applications (“fuel-draulics”) to be rejected in the fuel circuit. 18 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Concept of “APU Always On.” Related to some of the engine optimisations potentially available from Low Pressure Shaft generation – generally lowering the imbalance of power offtake from the High Pressure Shaft (improved Surge Margin). If redundant / parallel channels are available this could be a potential RAT replacement. 19 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Supercapacitors, Batteries, Fuel Cells, new technology Gas Turbine Generators. Advantages related to the concept of “APU Always On” – but each option is quite distinct. 20 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement Two disadvantages to conventional RAT systems: Installed weight is carried permanently without any power being generated; It is possible during an emergency scenario that the pilot doesn’t find out that the RAT is non-operational until he has already pulled the deployment lever. 21 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE ON CHAPTER ATA 24 Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Even if the technical tasks of integration of diverse equipments are derived from the conventional approach to ATA Chapter 24, the selection of Architectures, Topologies, their Integration and subsequent Qualification and composition of the Safety Case will all be new. Unit Design Integration Certification Safety Case 22 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. /03/ CASE STUDY – VARIABLE FREQUENCY STARTER-GENERATORS (VFSG) /03/ 23 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT – PIVOTAL TECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIC MACHINES ON ENGINE POD Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Outline comparison on a nominal 90kVA aircraft electrical generator 1960s (Concorde) Indirect Oil Cooling, 6-Pole, 85kg 1970s Spray Oil Cooling, 4-Pole, 40kg 1980s (APU) Spray Oil Cooling, 2-Pole, 23kg The Thermal Management technology (change from indirect to spray) was not used in isolation: Architecture and Topology selection permitted higher rotor speed (therefore physically smaller rotor); Then new Sleeve technology permitted even higher speeds / smaller rotors. The changes to Architecture and Topology used to enable lower weight are outside the perimeter of ATA 24. 24 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT – R&T MACHINES VULCAN VFSG (Variable Frequency Starter-Generator) Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Recorded Start Data 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time (s) Torque(lb-ft)/MainStator Current(Arms) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 GeneraotSpeed(rpm) Calculated Torque (lb-ft) Main Stator Current (A rms) Speed (rpm) 25 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT – R&T MACHINES AMES VFSG (Advanced More Electric Systems, supported by Innovate UK, ex-TSB) Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse s 20 40 60 80 100 120 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 20.0 17.5 15.0 12.5 10.0 7.5 5.0 2.5 0.0 -2.5 Pink Main Stator Amps rms Blue Torque Nm Red Speed rpm Green ME Amps rms 26 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT – R&T MACHINES Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse VULCAN VFSG 225kVA 230VAC AMES VFSG 200kVA 230VAC Oil Circuit externally pumped Independent Oil Circuit The function of the VFSGs is outside the perimeter of ATA 24, Thermal Management is a major part of the system. 90kVA VFSG 230VAC Oil Circuit development underway in current R&T 27 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. CONCLUSION Labinal Power Systems More Electric Aircraft 2015 Toulouse Relocation of AGB equipment to Fuselage . . . . & Nearer Engine Core Core Mounted Starter / Generator LP Generation Large PMAs Engine Pod Icing Protection Engine Pod Oil Pumping Engine Pod Fuel Pumping APU Generation Channel Alternate Power Sources / Thermal Management RAT Replacement New technology electrical machines are crossing over the perimeter of the conventional ATA Chapter 24 for Electrical Power Systems. Interface is with the AGB and Engine Pod, as well as the Electrical Network feeding into Distribution, Technical and Hotel electrical loads. Harsher Environments for future systems mean Thermal Management will play a very large role in Integration, Certification and Safety Case.

Christian Mercier

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State of the art of Helicopter Hybrid Propulsion Christian Mercier – Airbus Helicopters SAS Technical directorate Chief Engineer, Research Department Marignane , France Marc Gazzino Senior expert Electrical systems – On board energy Marc Mugnier Preprojects engineer Abstract — This document presents the state of the art of Helicopter hybrid Propulsion perspectives Summary As done in the car industry, it can be envisaged replacing thermal energy necessary for helicopter propulsion and sustentation by electrical energy. Improvements on electrical technologies allow proposing electrical systems with attractive power to mass ratio to complement the thermal engine providing the mechanical power necessary for the helicopter propulsion. The differences between automotive functions devoted to hybridization and these possible in the case of a helicopter are explained. The different architectures (on turbine or on helicopter side) are reviewed and examples of possible applications on classical helicopters are given, not only the case of AH light helicopter autorotation management improver successfully tested in 2011. The requirements on the electrical system for industrial applications are reviewed: electrical motor and power electronics, cooling systems, energy storage. State of the art of Helicopter Hybrid Propulsion Christian Mercier Marc Gazzino Marc Mugnier Abstract — This document presents the state of the art of Helicopter Hybrid Propulsion. It gives the status of some possible architectures and conditions (technological, economical,…) for practical applications. More electrical helicopter, hybrid propulsion Introduction As done in the car industry, it can be envisaged replacing partly thermal energy necessary for helicopter propulsion and sustentation by electrical energy. Recent improvements on electrical technologies allow proposing electrical systems with attractive power to mass ratio to complement the thermal engine providing the mechanical power necessary for the helicopter propulsion. The differences between automotive functions devoted to hybridization and these possible in the case of a helicopter are explained. The different architectures (on turbine or on helicopter side) are reviewed and examples of possible applications on classical helicopters are given, not only the case of AH light helicopter autorotation management improver successfully tested in 2011. Complete replacement of the thermal engine by electric could be realistic only when the power to mass ratio of the electrical components will be at the right level, especially for energy storage, which is still far away. The requirements on the electrical system for industrial applications are reviewed: electrical motor and power electronics, cooling systems, energy storage. I. HYBRID CATEGORIES: What we call “hybridization” is the use of electrical energy to complement or replace thermal energy for propulsion. Power can be estimated between tens of kW to help the turbine gas generator to several hundreds of kW if we consider electric motor for rotor direct drive. By analogy to solutions existing in car industry, new propulsion architectures can be envisaged in helicopter to save fuel or increase power for propulsion and can be classified in several categories depending on electric power levels and organization of the power engines. Different levels of hybridization can be defined depending on the share of electric power for propulsion (fig1): - Microhybrid: electric energy is limited to around 50 kW and as such used on the turbine gas generator to give transient assistance (acceleration/deceleration capacities to better master the surge margins), get boost power…for example - Mild Hybrid means power input to the transmission up to around 300kW, either to the MGB for emergency power in case of turbine failure (improving autorotation of a Singler Engine helicopter for ex.) either to the rear rotor to make it full electric - Full Hybrid means higher electric power making some flight phases possible with only electric power (cruise for ex.) but not the entire flight; it results that thermal power is required for the other phases and a variety of architectures can be imagined mixing thermal power to produce electric energy, stored or not temporarily in batteries - Full electric means no thermal power on board for the whole flight, as in some well-known toys or UAVs And different organizations of power sources: - Parallel architecture: the electrical power channel provides mechanical power to the rotor in parallel to the thermal engine. - Serial architecture: the rotor is driven only by electrical motor; the electrical motor is supplied by a generator driven by a thermal engine. - Power split architecture: electrical motor is connected to the mechanical drive, allowing combination of both energies, adding for mechanical power boost by electric or subtracting to store mechanical energy to electric storage for example. A mix of these architectures can be implemented between main rotor and tail rotor. Fig1 II. SPECIFICS OF HYBRIDIZATION FOR HELICOPTERS COMPARED TO AUTOMOTIVE USE Hybridization on helicopters is different from hybridization on cars as usage and thus power needs strongly differ (fig2) . Fig2 On helicopters, the level of power required is much more stable as in cars and, in normal operating conditions, there is no flight phase of negative power. On cars, the level of required power strongly varies with the use phases: - High power needed for highway : use of thermal engine - Low power for city use: use of electric motor with the benefit of high torque at low speed allowing high accelerations - Kinetic energy recovery during braking resulting in fuel burn reduction, especially in city use It must be outlined that energy recovery from flight is not efficient in an aircraft. It could be used for faster descents but not for saving fuel.On the contrary to storing energy which is lost into heat in the case of car braking, recovery from flight energy (either kinetic or potential) is a degradation of energy (taking into account the efficiency of storage chain which is way lower than 100%); for example storing energy during autorotation to reuse it for smoother landing is a bad idea because it results in a faster descent… Nevertheless, helicopter specific characteristics / requirements (multi-engines, emergency situations, flight domain) may justify hybrid power generation solutions. Current estimates show that for conventional turbine architecture, further improvements may allow reducing fuel consumption by around 15% by 2020 but the optimization of the turbine is becoming more and more complex and as a consequence expensive. On helicopters, hybridization is not intrinsically green but could enable technologies for green innovation (like Diesel- cycle kerosene fuel piston engines with very low specific fuel burn used at their optimum running point) thus leading to further reductions of the fuel consumption. The main benefits of hybridization is giving new degrees of freedom and would allow - to optimize the power generation for all flight phases while it is today sized mainly to cope with constraints in limited flight phases (e.g. take-off or One Engine Inoperative mode) - to use different combinations of thermal engines (e.g. various small Diesel engines with electric generators electrically linked without the mechanical complexity of multiengine power) which would lead to an overall gain at helicopter level - to have a free choice of helicopter architecture (engine integration, rotors: e.g. elec.tail rotor) - to reduce the noise emission and improve the performance by increasing the available range of rotors rotational speed and decoupling main and antitorque rotor speeds. Contrary to car industry, all technical possible improvements leading to safety and environmental progress (like ABS, airbags, exhaust gases aftertreatment, …) are not yet imposed by regulations and thus do not reach the customer because they impact weight and cost in a competitive environment. In addition, the weight constraints on helicopters (which are the most demanding of all types of aircraft due to complex aeromechanical laws) are much more important than on cars. III. ELECTRIFICATION OF PROPULSION SYSTEM Helicopter propulsion is ensured by main rotor and tail rotor driven by one or several thermal engines. Gear boxes are used to adapt thermal engine output shaft speed to the main rotor and tail rotor speed. Up to now, this type of architecture is the one implemented in helicopters used with physical persons on board and this article deals with this “conventional helicopter” (main and rear rotors). Electrical propulsion exists for toys and UAVs. As for fixed wing aircrafts (several demonstrations already done), electrical propulsion solutions can be imagined for helicopters thanks to new technologies emerging in electric domain: electric motors, power electronics and energy storage. The key factor for the choice, definition and implementation of these hybrid propulsion architectures is the weight and efficiency of the electric system components. Generally, the electrical system consists in: energy storage device (battery of accumulators or super capacitors or inertial storage device for example), one or several electric motors associated with their power controller, control/monitoring device to manage the electric system in accordance with helicopter power management strategy. Power-to-mass ratios of these components are now in the range of several kW/kg and will increase in the future thanks to new material: SIC, GaN for power electronics, high temperature material for electric motors, new lithium technologies (Li-S, Li-Air) for energy storage. IV. SOME EXAMPLES Among a lot of possible architectures envisaged, some examples are given hereafter. For each architecture the main benefits and drawbacks are listed as well as technological status of electrical equipment available and of requirements on critical characteristics for a practical future application. A. Microhybrid on turbine for OEI30s boost: For lower powers an input of electrical power to the gas generator of the turbine (for the highest ratings like OEI30s) results in a greater output at the free turbine level and is more efficient than direct electric power to the transmission. This allows benefiting globally from a better performance for the helicopter; particularly it could be used in case the turbine is at its developments limits for reshuffling helicopter performance. Present available technology would allow such application. B. Engine Backup System (EBS) for Light Helicopter (mild hybrid): The supplemental electric system is used to increase maneuverability of a single-engine helicopter during an autorotation landing – which is performed by helicopters in the event of an engine failure: in fact an helicopter flies in autorotation descent and is fully maneuverable, which allows to land safely by applying techniques that single helicopters pilots know and are trained for. The additional electric motor provides power to the rotor, allowing the pilot to even better control the helicopter after engine failure and then to a safe touchdown. With the new system the manoeuver executed by the pilot in case of engine failure is identical to what all single engine pilots are used to. The difference is in the increased margins and the easiness of the procedure with the system. Thanks to the automatic system the reaction time is increased when the failure occurs because the rotor speed droop is slower. This avoids very low rotor speed and a too high descent rate in case of a delayed reaction of the pilot. At the end when landing the power delivered by the system allows stopping the aircraft much easier, to better choose the landing point and to control the ground touchdown much more easily. The technical characteristics of available motors and power electronics, and one-shot specific batteries are near to allow for a complete system with less than 50kg. Nevertheless, development cost and RC of such system cannot be valued at customer level (as an option for example) because of the loss in payload near to one pax in the absence of a regulatory constraint which would impose it for all manufacturers. Fig3 C. Mild hybrid with SIO or SEO Turbine Specific Fuel Consumption is minimum at high power. Idea is on a twin-engine helicopter, to put one turbine at the minimum possible idle (Super Idle Operation) or stop it (Single Engine Operation) to save fuel The mild hybrid complement to SIO (or SEO) mode consists in completing the required power level to sustain level flight without any drop of cruise speed. The electrical chain provides the additional power to sustain the level flight while the second turbine is running in SIO or SEO mode. Once the battery runs out of energy, the second turbine is restarted to provide both the power complement to sustain flight and the power to reload the battery. This architecture helps to save only some % of fuel consumption, with present data of electric systems, compared with conventional architecture, at the expense of complexity. Fig4 D. Electrical rear rotor (mild hybrid): The direct link in speed between turbine, main rotor and rear rotor which leads to difficult tradeoffs between performance and noise for example could disappear if the rear rotor is electrically driven. Also it seems optimal to drive directly this rotor by an electric motor, and with fixed pitch reverse thrust by reversing the rotation direction. Nevertheless inertial constraints, aerodynamics, safety requirements lead to additional weight of the order of magnitude of 1 pax which is unacceptable. In this case the distance to target for the electrical motor (with redundant architecture for safety reasons) is around a factor 5 for weight, not taking into account other detrimental elements like center of gravity backwards position of the system leading to another overweight compensation in the front part of the aircraft. Fig5 E. Serial with turbine (Full hybrid) The example of a single turbine helicopter of Ecureuil size is given, where the turbine is driven at its optimum SFC point so as to minimize fuel burn (whatever the flight case) and electric generator either produces current for the rotor’s electric motors either to store energy in a battery. So that the turbine sizing is minimal and the power complement needed for high power flight cases like takeoff is provided by the battery. By using today’s horizon assumptions regarding the electrical components, the empty weight penalty of this architecture is above 300 kg. On the aerial work mission for example, it is supposed that the turbine can reload the battery on the level flight segment only. However, the weight assessment of the propulsive chain (including the downsized turbine) is way too heavy and prevents the helicopter from carrying fuel at iso take-off weight! Electrical machines and power electronics are the key components of this architecture. The battery power density should be multiplied by at least 7 to get even with the current Ecureuil performance Downsizing of the turbine is not enough to compensate the strong empty weight penalty. This architecture has no future with the current electrical components characteristics forecasts. Fig 6 F. Full electric This architecture has been well known in the toys industry where small remote-controlled UAV are manufactured. However, due to the Froude theory and to other aeromechanical laws, a general rule of thumbs can be applied on the helicopter: dP/P≈1.1 dW/W where P is the required power and W is the weight of the helicopter. The main two differences between the toys industry and a real rotorcraft are: - the increase of required power is clearly not proportional to the increase of weight, due to the aeromechanical laws (factor 3 more at least!). - in addition, the battery and the electrical motor can occupy the whole space of the toy, whereas it is necessary to keep the same volume of cabin and layout to perform the missions for the real helicopter; the increase of required power is also clearly not proportional to the increase of volume (factor 14 more at least!). For both reasons (weight scale and volume constraint), it can be seen that if a 10-minute full electrical flight is possible on a small remote-controlled UAV (weighing less than 50 g) with the current battery technologies, the power and energy required are way too much for a 3-ton class rotorcraft aiming at 2 hours of endurance. Fig 7 V. THERMAL AND VOLUME CONSTRAINTS A. Thermal: A crucial point in hybridization is the cooling of electrical equipment: for short durations high densities power outputs as well for motor as power electronics but also for batteries entail high temperatures which they cannot bear thus a cooling system is required (with liquid and circulation pumps). Only for very short durations (less than 30s, emergency uses like EBS) this can be avoided with use of massic heat capacity for example. In the case of batteries this can represent additional weight to be added to the gas safety ventings and installation provisions (like supporting crash loads). B. Volume: In some cases the battery requires such a capacity that its volume (taking into account its “peripherals” like Battery Management System, internal/external harnesses, crashworthiness provisions, exhaust gases safety outlets, contactors…) presents a problem for installation because it competes with luggage or even passengers rooms. VI. DISTANCE TO TARGET Ragone plots show the global results of a comprehensive study of possible hybrid architectures’ requirements on main parameters of the electrical equipment (motors/power electronics, batteries) which have to be met at least for performing the same performance of the helicopter (payload,…) with additional benefits (fuel burn essentially). In red are plotted present physical characteristics of motor (triangle) and batteries (red and orange dots). In green the targets zones. We can see that we still are quite far from these targets, mainly because of the storage poor weight densities (power, energy, volume) which still need great improvements. Fig 8 VII. CONCLUSION Among a variety of hybrid architectures that could be imagined and analyzed taking into account recent progress of electric machinery and storage, mainly emergency electric power source emerges improving the controllability of the helicopter in case of turbine failure. Nevertheless the additional weight and cost of such system remain a bad fit for the customer, especially from an economical point of view. Very significant progress is still needed, especially for the storage device, the battery being the best fit but still far away from the weight/power ratio required for the helicopter which is the most demanding aircraft in terms of lightness. Targets have been defined, associated with specific architectures imagined, the identified benefits of which could be released when they are reached.

Jean-Francois Rideau

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This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. MEA 2015 Conference O3-3 APU on More Electrical Aircraft : a vision for the future SAFRAN – MICROTURBO Jean-Francois RIDEAU, Stéphane VAILLANT, Fabien SILET, Bernard BLANC 1 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT • Aircelle • Messier-Bugatti-Dowty • Hispano-Suiza • Labinal Power Systems DEFENSE • Sagem SECURITY • Morpho AEROSPACE PROPULSION • Snecma • Herakles • Turbomeca • Microturbo • Techspace Aero SAFRAN GROUP COMPANIES SAFRAN GROUP MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 2 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Microturbo, over 50 years experience in APU market 60’s Small turbo engines for military purpose 60’s-00’s 2009-2013 2011 - 2014 Involvement in most of major military and sovereign programs for fighter aircrafts, anti-ship & cruise missiles and H/C Development of the eAPU 60 for the civilian H/C market Partnership with PWA on business jets Microturbo products & programsThe European leader in APU and turbojet engines 2015 Tier one Auxiliary Power Units APUs for airplanes and helicopters APUs for ground applications Turbojet engines for missiles and UAVs Engine Starters and Starting Systems Key Figures Revenue of $138 Million in 2014 More than 600 people 3 sites: Toulouse (HQ), San Diego and Dallas 130 Engineers and Technicians 10% of turnover invested in R&T Integrated manufacturing capabilities (250 people) Falcon 5X and Global 7000/8000 programs handled by Microturbo APU LLC MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 3 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Safran is committed to offer a wide range of products within the chain of energy Commercial aircraft Engines Silvercrest Engine nacelles Landing systems Braking & landing systems Electrical systems Power Transmission Avionics and navigation systems EGTS - the Electric Green Taxiing System Group companies involved in propulsion & equipment Auxiliary Power Units INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS FOR OPTIMIZED ENERGY CHAIN MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 4 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. MICROTURBO Answer to More Electrical Aircraft Challenge More Electrical Aircraft Architecture implies Global Energy Chain Thinking Better System integration, Aircraft Operability Optimisation MICROTURBO intents to be a player in this More Electrical Aircraft Challenge APU Gas Turbine Provider Power On Demand System Provider APU System Provider 5 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Actual APU Functions as ATA49 Classical APU Functions On Ground Power supply Pneumatic and Electric Main Engine Start Bleed Air to the ECS System In flight Power Supply Pneumatic and Electric In case on Main Engine Generator Failure Specific Type Certificate « CS APU »(US « TSO-C77b) Cat 2 : Ground Use – Cat 1 : Flight Use (Icing, Ingestion, Starting system, Automatic shutdown) Limited number of system carrying their own Type Certificate (Aircraft CS – 23/25, Engine CS – E, APU CS – APU, Propeller CS – P, Helicopters CS – 27/29) MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 6 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. APU Architectures and technologies Gas Turbine APU Technologies Core EgnineGearbox Air (Kg/s) kVA Bleed APU kVA Bleedless APU MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 7 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. APU Architectures and technologies e_APU60 A More Electrical APU Proven Technology S/G Electrical Fuel System FADEC Technology Remaining Steps Electrical Oil System Embedded S/G (TRL9 at MT for P<5kW) Energy Harvesting Electrically Self sustaining System 8 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. e-APU60 for AGUSTA WESTLAND AW189 Main characteristics APU Operation : up to 20 kft Temperature : -50 to +60 °C Bleed flow rate : 17 lb/mn (0.13kg/s) Bleed pressure : 50 psia (3.4 bars) Power rating: Up to 60kVA Mass : 121lbs L x W x H : 17x14x14 inches Civil certified EASA CS APU cat 1 FAA TSO C77B cat 1 e-APU60 Bleedless APU for more electrical aircraft compact, high power density MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 9 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. From APU provider to System Provider System integration capabilities Acquisition of competencies outside of the classical Turbine scopeInlet/exhaust Inlet/Exhaust aerodynamic Noise reduction Piloted Air Inlet Door Mounts/Struts Dal A Fadec Critical function High Altitude Operation 51000 ft MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 10 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. 10 APU Exhaust (i.e. noise suppressor) Air Inlet / APU Composite APU fixtures (struts, fixations) Inlet Door + Actuator (controlled by the FADEC) Collar Eductor From APU provider to System Provider System integration capabilities Tail Cone Test Rig Tail Cone Test Rig Test Rig Control Room MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 11 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. APS2[800] For Bombardier Global 7000/8000 Industry Leading Altitude Start and Power capability APS2[800] MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse Designed for the Ultra Long Range Biz Jet market High Efficiency Compressor providing unmatched bleed and shaft power capability Two Stage high efficiency and low noise turbines DA718 turbine disks for high strength and low weight Proven reliability > 8000 MTBF ETOPS 60 kVA to 45k ft 12 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. From APU System to Power on Demand System The Power On Demand System extends the APU concept up to non- propulsive power generation over the whole flight domain, simplifying aircraft architecture. Meets customers needs of sizing differently aircraft engines & architecture. Offers “à la carte” solutions adaptable for Business Jet up to Long Range Commercial Aircraft in the Power Range of 50kW up to 1.5MW for : Normal flight mode ‒ Take Off ‒ Climb ‒ Descent Emergency mode A Game changer Improvement of aircraft architecture energetic efficiency Optimization of main engine load shedding through active power on board management Reduction of the environmental footprint PODS MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 13 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. PODS Technology Differentiator Where Differentiation comes from Technology Power Weight Ratio -40% at system Level Extended Use of 3D Printing Embedded Generator ACARE 2050 Compatibility Low noise by design High Performance Acoustic Treatment Ground Pollution Control High Altitude Starting Capability 47,000+ feet starting capability Energy availability at high altitude MTBF > 10.000OH Cross ATA 49/24/21 PODS Cross ATA Design and Optimization Multi system Compatibility SMART GRID Compatibility FC and other thermal Engine in POD System MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 14 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Microturbo a step forward on 3D Printing Safran Microturbo – Innovation at play First Fully 3D Printed Engine MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse 15 / This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. Microturbo a step forward on 3D Printing Safran Microturbo – Innovation at play First Fully 3D Printed Engine MEA Conference – O3-3 APU A vision of the Future – 3rd February 2015 - Toulouse Redesign Mass 1, 45kg -43% This document and the information therein are the property of Safran, They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Safran. 16 /

François Biais

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www.thalesgroup.com This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems16/02/2015 MEA 2015 Toulouse Electrical Power Generation and Start Solution for the Falcon F5X Program F Biais F Delhasse P Thalin 2 /2 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Electrical Power Generation and Start Solution for F5X ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Content 1/ Background on electric start: DC to AC start 2/ F5X generation and start solution 3 /3 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Electric start by DC machines Electric start of engines is widely used, based on 28 Vdc starters or starter/generators: business jet engines - commuter aircraft engines - APU turbines 4 /4 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Introduction of Variable Frequency AC Generators Variable Frequency Generators directly driven by the engine Gearbox (constant speed drive removed) combined with Power converter performances Makes possible the replacement of the engine air start by brushless 3-stage AC generator start (operating as a synchronous motor supplied by a converter) 5 /5 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Thales demonstrations of electric start by brushless 3-stage AC generator Based on its experience on brushless 3-stage AC generators and “autosynchronous” motors and control Thales demonstrated back in 1995 the AC electric start by a brushless 3- stage generator 6 /6 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram 1st demonstration of electric start by brushless 3-stage AC generator In 1995 an off-the-shelf air-cooled 115 VAC 30 kVA 12000 rpm generator was modified so as to operate in motor mode in low speed range (0 to idle): Exciter modified to operate as a transformer • Rotor position sensor introduced to enable autosynchronous control • Supply of the 3-phase main stator with flux weakening capability and the main exciter by a converter A turboprop engine was successfully started by this modified generator. ~ 7 /7 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Challenges for the brushless 3-stage starter-generator to operate in both starting and generating modes Exciter: The same exciter must be capable of operating in two different modes: In generating mode: is excited by GCU DC current, operates as a synchronous machine, and delivers the power to the main rotor from mechanical power In starting mode: is supplied by AC converter, provides full AC power to the exciter rotor through transformer effect Main stator: In generating mode: provides electric power meeting voltage standards constraints In motoring mode: provides torque within converter current constraints Cooling: Oil or air flow rate is reduced during starting sequence at low speed > challenge on rotating diodes 8 /8 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Development of a high power Starter Generator (MEGEVE) In 2005 an oil-cooled 200 kVA starter-generator demonstrator was developed by Thales: • Including “hybrid” exciter with both generating and starting functions • Including position sensor Generating and starting modes were validated Various starting control laws were incorporated and tested. 130 kW 9 /9 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Development of a high power Starter Generator (MEGEVE) • Starting sequences were tested • Thermal behavior during starting sequence was analyzed on the instrumented Starter generator (stator, and also rotor through tele-transmission) Temperature on stator winding, exciter winding and rotating diodes time (s) time (s) temperatures(°C) temperatures(°C) rotating diodes AC exciter DC exciter Main stator end turns and slots 10 /10 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales Background on electric start ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Development of an embedded high power Permanent Magnet Starter Generator in Rolls Royce engine (POA program) A 150 kW (Gen) / 175 kW (Start) embedded Permanent magnet generator was developed and tested in a RR engine (on HP shaft). Integration challenge of a PM machine in harsh environment Starting and generating operation were validated Embedded stator immersed in cooling oil with ceramic sleeve separation Rotor on High pressure shaft 11 /11 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales FALCON F5X Generation and start solution ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Challenges addressed during these advanced developments • Optimization of double operation of the exciter • Machine cooling during start phase • Optimization of kVA rating of main and auxiliary converter Complete generation and start solution TopStartTM proposed for the new Dassault Falcon F5X 12 /12 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales FALCON F5X Generation and start solution ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Falcon F5X : Thales generation and start solution 2 x main Starter Generators 115 V, air cooled Start the Snecma Silvercrest engine 1 APU Starter Generator 115 V, air cooled Start the PW APU turbine 3 GCU 13 /13 / This document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of ThalesThis document is the property of Thales Group and may not be copied or communicated without written consent of Thales FALCON F5X Generation and start solution ThalesAvionicsElectricalSystems-ElectricalPowerGenerationandstartsolutionfortheF5Xprogram Falcon F5X : Thales generation and start solution 1 Start box Delivers AC power to the APU Starter/Generator from Battery through DC/DC boost converter Delivers AC power to the Main Starter/Generator from Ground Power Unit / Main Starter Generator /APU through rectifier Air cooled (-55°C to +70°C)

Peter Glöckner

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More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 04 February 2015 Toulouse Peter Glöckner Schaeffler Group – BU Aerospace More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 1 1 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 1 2 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 2 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group 3 “Together we move the world” More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group 4 In million euros 2009 7,336 2010 9,495 2011 10,694 2012 11,125 2013 11,205 Proportion in % Asia/Pacific Europe South America North America 56 16 5 23 Structure in effect until December 31, 2013 Employees Sales (FY 2013) 168 locations worldwide: More than 80,000 worldwide: € 11.2 billion in 49 countries More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group 5 Europe Greater China Asia/Pacific Americas Corporate Units IndustrialAutomotive Regions: Business Units More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group – Automotive Division 6 Sensor wheel bearing units Tapered roller bearings Tandem angular contact ball bearings TappetsCamshaft phasing units Finger followers with hydr. pivot elements Needle roller bearings OAP Chain tensioning systems McPherson strut bearings Shifting systems Lightweight balancer shafts with rolling brg. supports Toothed chains for primary drives Ball screw drives Torque converters Clutch release systems Dual mass flywheels SAC Double clutch systems dry/wet Clutch linings Transmission components AllrightsreservedforSchaefflerTechnologiesGmbH&Co.KG,especiallyifindustrialpropertyrightsaregranted. Engine and transmission components Components for clutch and transmission systems Wheel modules and transmission bearings Wheel bearings with face spline Deep groove ball bearings More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Schaeffler Group – Industrial Division 7 Linear technology Tapered roller bearings Ball bearings Needle roller bearings Spherical roller bearings Cylindrical roller bearings Off-Highway Motorcycles Fluid and Pneumatics Renewable Energies Aerospace Heavy Industries Power Transmission Consumer Products / Medical Systems Railway Production Machinery More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Special Bearing Systems for Aerospace Applications 8 Main shaft and gearbox bearing supports, e.g. for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and Airbus A 380 Gearbox, swash plate, and transmission shaft bearings for helicopters High-precision bearings in the joints of the robotic arm of the Phoenix Mars lander Special bearings for rocket engines, e.g. turbo pump bearings (Space Shuttle) and cross pin bearings (Ariane 5) More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 9 1 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Motivation 10 Motivation: Reduction in Fuel Burn, Emissions & Noise Minimum 50% Reduction in Fuel Burn and Emissions Geared Fan Recuperating Aero Engines (with heat exchanger) Todays Modern Aero Engines Advanced Aircraft Configurations Fuel Burn - Level 2000 2030 Technologies 20-35% New Engines 20% New Aircraft Config's 10% ATM Air Traffic Management (ATM) Open Rotor More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 1 2 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 11 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. 40% Weight & Power Loss Reduction Integrated Bearing Designs Advanced Bearing Cooling Systems New Materials, Coatings & Surface Technologies Advanced Bearing Analysis High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems Integrated Outer Ring Cooling System Integrated Shaft / Bearing Modules Ceramic Rolling Elements Optimized Surfaces Diamond Like Coatings on Rolling Elements Calculation of Shaft / Gear / Bearing Systems Rolling Contact Stressing Calculation Multi-Body-Calculation 12 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 1 2 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 13 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 14 Schaeffler Automotive : Covering the full range of powertrain and chassis electrification: High Efficient Electromechanical Systems for the Automotive Industry eWheel Electric Axle Drive Hybrid Module Hybrid Module Active Roll Control System (ARC) More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 15 Transfer of the Passenger Car eWheel Technology into Aircraft: eTaxi 1 2 3 5 4 1 2 3 Liquid cooling Technical data ► Torque: 525 Nm cont. / 850 Nm peak ► Power: 38,5 kW cont. / 60 kW peak ► Weight: approx. 66 kg ► Dimensions: approx. Ø 419 mm x 184 mm 4 5 Power electronics E-machine Friction brake Wheel bearing More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 16 Average taxi-time per day (minutes) Airbus A320 6,799 total deliveries (10,504 family) 3,697 firm order backlog (6,132 family) Transfer of the Passenger Car eWheel Technology into Aircraft: eTaxi Example: 0 50 100 150 Source: EUROCONTROL, US Department of Transportation, Aircraft Commerce, IATA, Airbus Note: *As of 30 June 2014 • Average estimated fuel saving per taxiing & a/c: 13 kg/min • Average taxi-time per day & a/c: 95 min • Average estimated fuel saving per day & a/c1): 1.2 t • Average estimated fuel saving per year & a/c2): US$ 200,000 1) electric power consumption and increased airplane weight not considered 2)US$/bbl = 70 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 17 Transfer of the Passenger Car Active Roll Control (ARC) Technology into MEA Stab bar Rubber decoupling clutch Planetary transmission eMotor Integrated ECU Torque Sensor Cable Stab bar Technical description • Nominal voltage 12V • Æ90 x 392 mm (without bars) • Total weight 11,8 kg (w/o bars & cables) • Nominal 900 Nm, peak 1.200 Nm • Ramp-up speed 900 Nm at 200 ms • Torque accuracy at life time 40 Nm (4%) • ASIL A More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 18 Transfer of the Passenger ARC Technology into MEA Without ARC With ARC • Significantly improved comfort by Ø reduction of vehicle body roll at cornering Ø reduction of copy movements at poor roads • Safety improvements due to reduction of over steering • Improved vehicle dynamics and agility at any speed • Enables differentiation of platforms from main stream General benefits of the ARC • CO2 reduction by 8g /100km*) due to power-on-demand • High actuator dynamics (900Nm / 0,2s) • High torque accuracy over lifetime • Plug-and-play – easy handling and assembly • Maintenance-free Benefits of the Schaeffler ARC *) 0,3l/100km More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 19 Transfer of the ARC Technology into Aircraft Concept Case: Actuation of Slats and Flaps State of the Art Hydraulic Flap Actuation System: • Rotary or ball screw actuators • Symmetrical deployment of flap panels • "Easy to Lock" in case of asymmetry or power loss • Many mechanical components in the drive system (joints, gearboxes, bearings etc.) • No individual actuation of each single high lift surface possible Power Control Unit (PCU) actuators gearboxes inboard transmission shaft More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 20 Transfer of the Passenger ARC Technology into Aircraft Concept Case: Distributed Actuation of Slats and Flaps Distributed Electromechanical Actuation System: • Elimination of central hydraulic motor and mechanical drive systems • Individual actuation of each single high lift surface possible, which allows for greater functionality Ø Varying wing profile options lead to improved lift distribution and reduced drag during cruise Ø Vortex decay due to individual deflection Ø Can compensate left / right wing fuel imbalance or OEI conditions Ø Adjustment of the Center of Lift in order to reduce wing bending moment in overload cases inboard Electromechanical Roll Control Unit as Flap Actuator • Potential use as actuator in distributed flap actuation systems Ø high torque, torque acceleration, and torque accuracy Ø high reliability Ø low weight More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft 21 1 2 3 Schaeffler Group Ergebnisse Motivation 4 High Efficient State of the Art e-Mobility Systems and potential MEA Transfer 3 High Efficient State of the Art Rolling Element Bearing Systems 5 Summary 2 More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. Summary 22 • Advanced mechanical aerospace bearing systems can be leveraged and incorporated in new electromechanical aerospace systems • Automotive modules such as the eWheel and the ARC present potential for Transfer into MEA • The eWheel technology is a potential solution for direct electric landing gear drive (eTaxi) • The ARC system presents a possible option for a distributed flap actuation system Advanced aerospace bearing systems and new electromechanical systems derived from automotive applications can contribute to more efficient and reliable MEA More Electric Aircraft Conference – Toulouse, February 3–5, 2015 The information in this document is the property of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG and may not be copied or communicated to a third party for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without express written authority of FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG. 23 Thank you for your attention! Transferring the Experience and Technology of Electric Mobility into Aircraft

T. Horde

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This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY Integration of fuel cell system for aeronautical applications Dr François Moser, Dr T. Hordé, Dr F. Boudjemaa SAFRAN/SNECMA Space engine division MEA 2015 / 5th February 2015 / 1 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION Integration of FCS into aircraft Maturated-equipment for development program (TRL6)  Works are still to be done to mature FC technologies for aeronautic applications MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 FC Stack FCESS NfH2 Alim ANODE REGULATION NfH2 Alim CATHODE REGULATION Thermal manage ment System design Certification Integration Safety Design to cost Design to weight RAMSmission location interfaces Power requirement Waste managementC/C 2 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY  V-type development life cycle AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS FOR FCS CERTIFICATION MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 AIR 6464 / EUROCAE ED-219 “Hydrogen Fuel Cells Aircraft analysis Fuel cell Safety Guidelines” FCS component qualification FCS certification FCS qualification CS25 “Certification specification for large aeroplane” PDR S/S PDR S/S CDR SS CDR ARP4754  Guidelines For Development Of Civil Aircraft and Systems ARP4761  Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment MIL-STD-704-F  Aircraft Electrical Power Characteristics AIR-1168  Aerothermodynamic Systems Engineering and Design AIR-2000  Aerospace Fluid System Standards DO-178  Software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification DO-254  Design assurance guidance for airbone electronic hardware S/S to be validate: - Stack - thermal management S/S - Reactive alimentation S/S - C/C - mechanical, electrical interfaces ED14/DO-160G  Environmental Conditions and test Procedures for Airborne Equipment 3 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY Examples of guidelines - Robust to single failure + uncontrolled fire on aircraft level is extremely improbable - HP H2/O2 storages shall be treated similarly regarding safety analysis - Bottle burst to be extremely improbable by combining qualification and design  Design for safety: “how making a safe O2/H2/e- system for aircraft?” MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS FOR FCS CERTIFICATION O2 standard known for aeronautic  CS 25 H2 standard to be found for H2 storage sub-system.  SAE AIR 6464  EN 12245 (DOT-CFFC) targerted for HP H2(O2) bottles (High TRL) FC Stack NfH2 Alim ANODE REGULATION NfH2 Alim CATHODE REGULATION Examples of risk mitigation - Energetic source segregation, FCS ventilation - Fire resistance proofness (TPRD + venting line) - Functions of control and security have to be separated 4 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IMPACTS FCS DESIGN  Cathode alimentation  Mission/cycle : long mission (compressor); short mission (O2 tank)  Location : air cabin, atmosphere  Life time  fuel cell stack size, reactive purity (filtering) MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 APU 50 - 200 kW 50 kg H2 Entertainment ~30 kW 10 kg H2 Special aircraft ~15 kW 10 kg H2 RAT ~15 kW 1 kg H2 Galleys ~30 kW 10 kg H2 J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol. 2010;8(1):011014-011014-7. doi:10.1115/1.4002400 5 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS IMPACT FCS DESIGN  Operational conditions (DO-160)  Mechanical solicitations (vibration, shocks)  Shock absorber : mechanical design compliance  Thermal environment [-55°C ; +85°C]  Ground survival conditions  Pressure [0.1 ; 1.088] bar abs  Ground conditions  On-board conditions MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 Altitude 0,6 - 1 bar 0,75 bar 0,75 bar 0,75 bar < 0,2 bar41000ft 8000ft ground inboard External cond.  Impact on structure design, alimentation design of FCS and component (gas pressure regulator, air compressor, gasket and coolant) FC Stack NfH2 Alim ANODE REGULATION NfH2 Alim CATHODE REGULATION 6 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY FUEL CELL SYSTEM LOCATION OPTIONS Fuel cell system location onto an aircraft MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 FC Stack FCESS NfH2 Alim ANODE REGULATION NfH2 Alim CATHODE REGULATION Thermal manageme nt  The localization of FCS on airplane would be mainly influenced by the relative proximity between FC hardware and public  Different options :  FCS near to the load  FCS in tail cone  FCS in fairing  The issues that influence the choice  Availability space  Safety  Tubing, wire mass & volume  Rejection of waste  FC waste heat 7 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY FUEL CELL & AIRCRAFT SPECIFICITIES Fuel cell system location onto an aircraft  Thermal management  Waste heat from depleted-air and cooling loop  Thermal power to evacuate depends on FCS electric performance (stack design) & operational condition (H2 purity, temperature, pressure)  Design of cooling loop ‒ Air cabin: limitation by ECS ‒ Exterior air: external temperature variation with altitude, no control of air flow rate ‒ Specific Equipment: power regulation depends on mission profile  Specific exchanger design vs localization  /!\ Compatibility coolant vs operational temperature MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 FC Stack Cooling loop Cold source from airplane 8 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FCS INTEGRATION  Optimizations of FCS design and location vs application  Equipment integration (design) into aircraft = certification specification  Safety assessment early in development phase  Operational environment  Integration requirements  Automotive-based fuel cell system solutions could not be adapted to aeronautical environment  Specific development  Energetic source segregation  H2 fuel cell standards under evolution  System and component development needed MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY 9 / SAFRAN’s fuel cell activities /02/ MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 10 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP SAFRAN – HYDROGEN POWER UNIT PEM-HT 5 kWe Ground demo PEM-HT 5 kWe H2 Storage 350 bar GGH2 solide PEM-HT 50kWe PEM-HT 12 kWe 2014 2018 2025-20302020 PEM-HT 2,5kWe GGH2 (solid) H2 Storage Type IV – 350 bar Sub-systems Systems and products Stack FC 2016 Air Compressor Environmental- Navigability EUROCAE – aeronautical certification AFNOR – H2 and FC standardization Military directives – logistic – Airport installations EPU non critical EPU critical MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 11 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY COMPETENCIES @ SAFRAN MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 COMPETENCIES @ SAFRAN ON FCS Certification Safety System Equipment 12 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY SAFRAN DEVELOPS SPECIFIC FC EQUIPMENTS  HT-PEMFC stack coupling with GGH2 (solid-based)  HT-PEMFC flexible to H2 impurities, thermal management  Solid GGH2 = more safe than HP bottle, manipulation  HT-PEMFC + GGH2 = compact system  Metallic HT-PEMFC stack (500cm²)  SAFRAN’s design proprietary  5kW H2/air 160°C (2kg/kW)  Ageing tests under investigation  TRL5 (2015) MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 Metallic HT-PEMFC 500cm² stack ©SAFRAN ©SAFRAN ©SAFRAN 13 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 14 / This document and the information contained are Snecma property and may be subject to export control laws and regulations. They shall not be copied or disclosed to any third party without prior written approval. Unauthorized export or re-export is prohibited EXPORT CONTROL : NC FRANCE – NOT CONTROLLED TECHNOLOGY FUEL CELL EXPERIENCES IN SAFRAN  Synergy with Space activities & competences:  Fuel cell experiences :  System design & tests: PEMFC & SOFC (electric & MFFC)  Power Range: from 300 W to 70 kW  Reactants: (H2/O2) direct or (reformat H2/Air), with gasoline fuel processing, ethanol kerosene, LPG, NG…  Hydrogen production experiences (Fuel Processing and GGH2):  Hydrocarbon Fuel Processor : NG, LPG and low sulfur kerosene  Solid Hydrogen – hydrolysis and thermolysis MEA 2015, Toulouse, 5th February 2015 Design & Integration of complex systems (hydraulics- thermal- mechanics) Handling quantities of hydrogen & oxygen Availability of wide & secured test area (130 ha)

Jacques Gatard

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www.tttech.com Jacques Gatard, Mirko Jakovljevic fr.linkedin.com/pub/dir/Jacques/Gatard jacques.gatard@tttech.com, mirko.jakovljevic@ttech.com Advanced Embedded Data Platforms for Distributed Power Management MEA 2015 www.tttech.comwww.tttech.com Company Key Facts Globally oriented high-tech company, headquartered in Vienna, Austria Innovation leadership - successful transfer of ground breaking research to high-volume production Privately held joint stock company with solid financial base and diversified shareholder basis More than 400 employees with offices in 10 countries (2015) Flexible supply network with leading industry partners and research institutions 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2011 2012 2013 2015Forecast 2014 2009 2010 Facts Gross Performance in MEUR HQ Vienna (AT) Ingolstadt (GER) Brixen (I) Bucharest (RO) Brno (CZ) Budapest (H) EUROPE Shanghai (CN) Seoul (KR) Nagoya (JP) ASIA Boston (MA) Bay Area (CA) NORTH AMERICA 2 www.tttech.com Product Examples Our Markets and USPs High-end ECUDeterministic Ethernet SwitchADAS Platform 3U VPX Switch Markets TTTech USPs Focus on Safe and Robust Networking and Controls TTTech is the technology leader in robust networked safety controls TTTech is the innovator of Deterministic Ethernet and the driving force behind the TTEthernet standard TTTech transfers proven aerospace network technology to mass markets like automotive and industrial Automotive Aerospace Industrial Off-Highway 3 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved A380 Integrated Modular Avionics 4 Copyright JB Itier, Airbus A380 Integrated Modular Avionics Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved www.tttech.com Integrated Modular Avionics The needs The solution: Integrated Avionics Architectures Higher system efficiency (SWaP reduction) New functional capabilities Minimized maintenance/lifecycle costs Longer maintenance intervals … Less parts, higher commonality, modularity Increased levels of functional Integration New capabilities, System level optimization Many functions hosted on common embedded resources Embedded Virtualization! 5 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved www.tttech.com More Electric Aircraft Data Network The needs Higher system efficiency (Single energy) New functional capabilities Minimized maintenance/lifecycle costs Longer maintenance intervals … Less parts, higher commonality, modularity Time and Space distribution New capabilities, System level optimization Many functions hosted on common embedded resources Embedded Virtualization! 6 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved The solution: More Electric Aircraft 7 More Electric Aircraft Distributed embedded controls Aircraft-wide hard RT system integration capability IMA-style infrastructure Ethernet-based data systems? Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Distributed Power Systems with „private“ embedded system and networks - Sensor Analog model + Controller System Reference Measured Output System Output System Input Measured Error Digital real world Sensor Controller System Network Interface Card Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Control Loops like Hard Real Time Determinism! Data network latency and jitter increase complexity in the control equations!!! 8 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved TTEthernet: Combining three worlds • IEEE 802.3 standard traffic • Best effort (IP) • ARINC 664 (AFDX®) / AVB • Rate-constrained • Avionics • Audio/video & Sensor fusion • SAE AS6802 synchronization • Real-time control • Ultra-low latency • Safety systems Copyright © 2011-2013 Lorill Electronic Sales Synchronous / Hard Real Time Asynchronous / Event Triggered Best Effort Ethernet (IP) 9 Precise latency and minimum jitter (< 1µs) Distributed fault-tolerant synchronization Robust time base Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Synchronized Global Time 10 AFDX® network TTEthernet Mixed Network Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved 11 Starting point: AFDX® network TTEthernet switches configured to operate as pure AFDX TTEthernet Mixed Network Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved 12 Starting point: AFDX® network TTEthernet switches configured to operate as pure AFDX Add function using time- triggered services (TT messages, GPS…) TTEthernet Mixed Network Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved 13 Starting point: AFDX® network TTEthernet switches configured to operate as pure AFDX Add function using time- triggered services (TT messages, DIMA, GPS…) Do further changes (e.g., add other AFDX® network, BE Ethernet E/S, Distributed IMA) TTEthernet Mixed Network 14 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Segregated model One MEA IMA-like embedded data platform (trans-ATA) separated from main avionics IMA system IMA runs only asynchronous (ARINC664/AFDX®) traffic Distributed Power data network runs synchronous (TT) traffic Both traffic coexist seamlessly at the interface IMA and Distributed Power Data Systems (1/3) 15 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Towards more integration Some high level MEA functions integrated in the avionics IMA Mix of asynchronous and synchronous traffics in the aircraft IMA. Both traffic coexist in the IMA Comprehensive safety and efficiency analysis needed Impact on the OEM/Tier 1 relationship!!! IMA and Distributed Power Data Systems (2/3) 16 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Subsidiarity! Most of high level MEA functions integrated in the avionics IMA Only low level and/or backup systems at MEA data network level Mix of asynchronous and synchronous traffics in the aircraft IMA Strong impact on the OEM/Tier 1 relationship!!! IMA and Distributed Power Data Systems (3/3) 17 Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved 18 Distributed Power data System & Controls More functions hosted in common infrastructure Lower SWaP, less connections, higher commonality Simplified design of reusable, modular and scalable architectures Functions can reside anywhere in the system, not tied to specific box or unit Simplified reconfiguration and improved dispatch Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved Summary: Distributed Power Data Systems and Controls Potential Optimization Distributed power systems can be controlled by IMA-style embedded data systems and controls Synchronous capability required to host strictly deterministic and fast controls A combination of SAE AS6802 and ARINC664 make it viable Ensuring Reliable Networks www.tttech.com www.tttech.com Copyright © TTTech Computertechnik AG. All rights reserved.

Yvan Carlier

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2/16/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2014 MEA 2015 Latest advances in electric Primary Flight Control Actuation (PFCA) February 5th 2015,Toulouse 2 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. UTC PROPULSION & AEROSPACE SYSTEMSUTC BUILDING & INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS 3 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. UTC AEROSPACE SYSTEMS Actuation & Propeller Systems Products Primary flight controls Secondary flight controls Utility actuation Missile actuation Nacelle actuation systems Propellers Cockpit controls and cabin equipment Trimmable horizontal stabilizer actuators Utility systems Thermal control systems Specialist composites Key Platforms Airbus A380 • Boeing 787 Dreamliner • Embraer E170/190 • Bombardier Global Express • Mitsubishi MRJ • Irkut MC-21 Sikorsky S-92 • Lockheed Martin F-35 • Eurocopter EC175 • Embraer KC-390 • Eurocopter NH90 • COMAC ARJ21 Agusta Westland AW139 • Bombardier CSeries • Dassault Falcon F7X • Airbus A400M • ATR 42/72 • C295 • Lockheed Martin C-130 4 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. INTRODUCTION  MEA since the end of 80’s. SC  EHA or EMA  Diversify power source : Safety Maintenance (hydraulics & pneumatics) Serial equipments 5 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA EHA ELECTRO-HYDROSTATIC ACTUATOR 6 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA OVERVIEW 7 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. A380 (2000-2005) Components optimization Improvement of the design – Maturity COVAN (1997-2000) A320 EHA A330 EHA Endurance 10000 FH Flight test (100 FH) CDVF (1993) Endurance Flight test 60 H MEASC EGIDE (1990-93) Technology feasibility Demonstration in lab conditions EHA HISTORY 8 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA IN FLIGHT  EHA IN SERVICE (since 2007) EHA proven technology (back up mode) 9 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA LESSONS LEARNT  Pump key design drivers (life duration /weight /inertia)  Thermal management  Parts cleanliness  Actuator bleeding  Inlet pressure implementation – Pump life duration  Electronic optimization  Still potential for improvement 10 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EHA NEXT STEPS  ON GOING R&T PROJECTS Improve : Reliability and Cost  100 % active (Autonomous & long life EHA) • Challenges Pump life > 150000FH • External leakage ~ 0 • Fluid contamination 30 years  Additive manufacturing use (cost & weight ) 11 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA EMA ELECTRO-MECHANICAL ACTUATOR 12 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA OVERVIEW  FROM EHA TO EMA (ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATOR) EHA EMA SIMPLER 13 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA.  EMBEDDED OR REMOTE ECU EMA TOPOLOGIES  LINEAR GEAR DRIVE EMA  LINEAR DIRECT DRIVE EMA  ROTARY GEAR DRIVE EMA 14 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. A2015 (2011-2015) EMA modules standardization Reliability, weight and cost GENOME (2012-2017) Components EMA topologies Power management HUMS EMA flight tests MODENE (2009-2015) Modeling Endurance (150 000 FH) MOET (2006-2009) Reliability Fault Anticipating System MEASC ELISA (90’s) Technology feasability EMA HISTORY 15 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA ACHIEVEMENTS  Topologies and components traded and optimized  Mechanical sizing tools  Module standardization  EMA modeling and testing  EMA endurance on going 16 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA LESSONS LEARNT  Thermal management EMA Constant loading = EMA Constant heating  Minimize EMA motor current  Maximize dissipation  Inertia EMA Inertia > > SC Inertia  Minimize Meq (flutter, end stop)  Minimize gear ratio  Jamming risk  Minimize parts, material, pairing  Lubrication  Optimize lubricant cleanness  Backlash  Pairing, pre-loads  Reliability  Minimize components  Envelope/weight  Highly Integrated components Active Std-by = Oscillator 17 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. EMA CURRENT STATUS  EMA TOPOLOGIES COMPARISON  SHORT TERM ACTIVITIES o HUMS tests o Flight tests o Supply chain development (partnerships) o Design to cost Linear GD Linear DD Rotary GD Thermal management + - + Inertia - + - Jamming risk - + - Backlash - + - Enveloppe Wider, Thiner Tighter, Thicker Wider, Thiner Weight = = = 18 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. CONCLUSION  Electrical actuation : > 25 yrs  EHA TRL9  Aircraft gain (safety, availability)  EMAs PFC to be matured in flight  Next steps: o EHA long life and autonomous o EMA life duration and reliability confirmation o ECU optimization and mutualization o Manufacturing and industrialization optimization o Health monitoring and prognostic MEA  PFC requirements to be adapted  Components to be optimized  Road map is defined, to next A/C PFCA generation is on its way 19 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 20 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. ANY QUESTION ? 21 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. 2/5/2015 THIS DOCUMENT OR FILE CONTAINS NO EAR TECHNOLOGY OR ITAR TECHNICAL DATA. Goodrich Actuation Systems SAS a UTC AEROSPACE SYSTEMS COMPANY 106 rue Fourny, 78530 Buc, France © Copyright of the content document belongs to Goodrich Actuation Systems SAS (a UTC AEROSPACE SYSTEMS COMPANY) and all rights are reserved. No reproduction of all or part of this document shall be made without prior written consent of Goodrich Actuation Systems SAS. This document contains information that may be confidential and its disclosure to others requires the written consent of Goodrich Actuation Systems SAS.

Sébastien Vieillard

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This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. Power electronics and motor control Key competencies for aircraft electrical systems competitiveness MEA 2015, 5th February 2015, Toulouse Sebastien VIEILLARD 1 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. AGENDA To manage the electrical chain within the electrical system Potential benefits and examples of the electrical chain importance EMI Control law Former and current power electronics developments of LPS Overview of technology research efforts Power electronics integration Thermal management High temperature Conclusion CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 2 / To manage the electrical chain within the electrical system /01/ CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 3 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. TO IMPROVE THE ELECTRICAL CHAIN COMPETITIVENESS LPS intent is to offer and share these developed strengths with the system supplier/customer to build together a well-fitted solution The electrical chain is an important contributor to the global weight, cost and performances of the system The electrical chain shall be addressed globally and not just be a sum of electrical equipment LPS intent is to address this complex theme through different and complementary activities Theses identified ways are the following : To deal with performances and constraints at the electrical chain level To master the up to date technologies and competencies development To capitalize on LPS aircraft former development and on field feedback CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 4 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. Power Electronics THE ELECTRICAL CHAIN PERIMETER Electrical network M Electrical chain perimeter Electrical machine Harnesses In any case, an electrical chain approach is needed to propose to the system owner a better solution (at technical, risk and cost points of view) System conversion & control System perimeter Overview of the electrical chain perimeter LPS can directly address the whole electrical chain : power conversion, harnesses and machine electrical definition Depending of systems and customers, the whole electrical machine design and manufacturing can be included within the perimeter of the electrical chain delivery CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 5 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL CHAIN ACTIVITIES The biggest lever to optimize any system design is to understand and challenge the customer needs However it requires the good level of skills to challenge the needs and propose acceptable alternate performances or solutions Two important research axes have been identified to develop our capabilities to challenge the customer needs at system level: The ElectroMagnetic Interference design and modeling The Electrical chain and its associated control modeling and optimization CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 6 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTROMAGNETIC DESIGN APPROACH To deal with EMI at the electrical chain level is important to: Offer a relevant EMI global design: An EMI design dealt equipment by equipment has 2 main risks : ‒ Non compliance (=> Design iteration => Cost increase) ‒ Over specification ( => over design => weight increase) To specify correctly the different equipments Maximum dV/dt or peak voltage applied on the machine, depends on power electronics and harnesses design Machine leakage capacitor versus thermal behavior capability Etc… EMI Noise propagation paths CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 7 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. EMI STUDIES ON COMPLETE POWER CHAIN This approach, led by LPS on different electrical system demonstrators, have shown promising results. Correlation enables now to propose an EMI design tools for the LPS engineering team. The major components of the electrical are modeled to define at the early design stage an appropriate system solution The accuracy and the knowledge on each components is heterogeneous, research and thesis are on progress to try to harmonize it CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 8 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ELECTRICAL CHAIN MODELING AND CONTROL OPTIMIZATION To develop accurate and quick electrical chain model enables to: Consolidate/Validate the customer performances Perform close loop iteration between power electronics definition, harnesses, motor design and system performances Define a compromise between power electronics, harnesses and machine to define a global optimum and not a collection of optimized equipment (at identical customer needs) 0 20 40 60 80 0 1 2 3 4 x 10 4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Speed (RPM) Torque (N.m) Phasecurrent(A) This approach, applied by LPS on a demonstrator, has reduced of 50 % power electronics design constraints, and 30 to 40 % more the nominal stress on the electrical chain design CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 9 / LPS power electronics developments and experience /02/ CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 10 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. ETRAS® (Electrical Thrust Reverser Actuation System) Power converter Power controller ETRAS® A380 : The first electrical thrust reverser actuation system in the world Partnership Labinal Power Systems and Honeywell Fitted to nacelles made by Aircelle (Safran group) for the GP7200 and Trent 900 engines offered on the A380 In production, ETRAS® has logged over 3, 200, 000 hours of operation (as of September 2014) C919 Electrical Thrust Reverser Actuation System A work in synergy with fellow Safran companies for Aircelle: Aircelle: Architecture and equipment integration in the nacelle, Sagem DAV : Thrust Reverser actuation system, Labinal Power Systems : TRCU (Thrust Reverser Control Unit). TRCU: an innovative electronic power converter Control the thrust reverser actuation system of the COMAC C919 Nacelle developed by Nexcelle (Aircelle/GE Joint Venture) Based on key-enabling technologies and experience with the ETRAS® system for the A380 C919 Thrust Reverser Control Unit PROPULSION SYSTEM: NACELLE CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 11 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. LANDING AND BRAKING SYSTEMS Electrical Braking Actuation Controller Messier Bugatti Electrical Brake The first electrical braking system in the world developed for civil application by Messier-Bugatti Labinal Power Systems supplies the Electrical Braking Actuation Controller EBAC is used with Messier-Bugatti electric brakes for the Boeing 787 4 EBAC units control braking on the main gear’s 8 wheels. EBAC (Electrical Braking Actuation Controller) – EBMA (Electrical Back-up Mechanical Actuator) CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 12 / Overview of technology research efforts /03/ CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 13 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. HIGH INTEGRATION POWER ELECTRONICS High efforts are done to increase the power density of LPS power electronics Introduction of new technologies (Films capacitor, new material for filters, Silicone carbide for power switches…) are strongly linked to electrical , thermal and mechanical integration issues. Integration effort done by LPS are continuous and the next step of demonstrator will target the 12 kW/kg A first power converter has been designed for AC/DC, DC/DC and DC/AC conversions at voltages up to 800VDC. Featuring a modular design, for easy rack mounting in electrical cabinets, this line-replaceable unit (LRU) can operate in individual and parallel mode to control very high- power loads. Output power: 45 kW continuous (150 A peak) Efficiency : 99% at 15kHz (silicon carbide technology) Operating temperature range: -55°C / 90°C (cold plate) Power density : 9kW/kg for this demonstrator CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 14 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT (1/2) Power electronics cooling is challenging regarding: Weight consideration Reliability impact Cost impact Thermal management is addressed from equipment up to components level At stand alone equipment level, two types of cooling are clearly targeted Natural air cooling Forced Air cooling With integrated fan at heatsink level CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 15 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. THERMAL MANAGEMENT (2/2) CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 All the layers of the cooling system are worked: 16 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER ELECTRONICS Discrete packaging HT inverter Innovative material study for packaging Discret component for drivers board HT laminate Polyimide PCB Used more HT Silicon component Low integration performance: 4.7 L MCPM packaged HT inverter High integration power core: 1.5L High reliability SiHT and SOI components High temperature conductive glue attach Thick Film and LTCC ceramic substrates HT inverter target 20A sinus HVDC 200°C maximal baseplate operation ACCITE project targets: 5kVA 200 C MCPM core integrated onto motor ©Valeo The LPS high temperature power electronics capability will enable to answer to high integration & temperature constraints raised by our customers CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. 17 / Conclusion /04/ CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015 18 / This document and the information therein are the property of Labinal Power Systems. They must not be copied or communicated to a third party without the prior written authorization of Labinal Power Systems. CONCLUSION Electrical chain optimization is a key point of system competitiveness LPS attempts to address this key competencies through the combination of: Power electronics and machine experiences Electrical chain engineering skills R&T strong efforts Industrial mindset Through this amount of skills and available technologies and with active exchanges with our customer, LPS will be pleased to propose and deliver more competitive power electronics products CONFIDENTIAL / LABINAL POWER SYSTEMS / 05/02/2015

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Centre des Congrès Pierre Baudis, Toulouse (France)

11, esplanade Compans Caffarelli
31000 Toulouse - France